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Revert "Deleted invalid <br> tags (#480)"

This reverts commit 71388aec58.
rich-revert-71388aec5
Richard Mahn 1 year ago
parent
commit
898f7f444c
74 changed files with 181 additions and 184 deletions
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      checking/community-evaluation/01.md
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+ 9
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checking/community-evaluation/01.md View File

@@ -11,23 +11,20 @@ Please also answer the following questions. The answers to these questions will

* List a few passages where the community feedback was helpful. How did you change these passages to make them clearer?





<br>
<br>
<br>

* Write an explanation for some of the Important Terms, explaining how they are equal to terms used in the source language. This will help the checkers understand why you chose these terms.





<br>
<br>
<br>

* Does the community verify that there is a good flow to the language when the passages are read out loud? (Does the language sound like the writer was a person from your own community?)





<br>
<br>
<br>

The community leaders might want to add their own information to this or make a summary statement about how acceptable this translation is to the local community. The wider church leadership will have access to this information, and it will help them to understand and to have confidence in the checking process that has been done so far. This will help them to validate the translation as approved by the local Christian community both when they do the Accuracy Check and when they do the final Validation Check.

+ 1
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translate/figs-123person/01.md View File

@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ After saying “each of you,” Jesus used the third person “his” instead of

If using the third person to mean “I” or “you” would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other options.

(1) Use the third person phrase along with the pronoun “I” or “you.”
(1) Use the third person phrase along with the pronoun “I” or “you.”<br>
(2) Simply use the first person (“I”) or second person (“you”) instead of the third person.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-activepassive/01.md View File

@@ -51,8 +51,8 @@ This describes a situation in which a person ends up in the sea with a millstone

If your language would use a passive form for the same purpose as in the passage that you are translating, then use a passive form. If you decide that it is better to translate without a passive form, here are some strategies that you might consider.

(1) Use the same verb in an active sentence and tell who or what did the action. If you do this, try to keep the focus on the person receiving the action.
(2) Use the same verb in an active sentence, and do not tell who or what did the action. Instead, use a generic expression like “they” or “people” or “someone.”
(1) Use the same verb in an active sentence and tell who or what did the action. If you do this, try to keep the focus on the person receiving the action.<br>
(2) Use the same verb in an active sentence, and do not tell who or what did the action. Instead, use a generic expression like “they” or “people” or “someone.”<br>
(3) Use a different verb.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-aside/01.md View File

@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ Nehemiah is speaking to the readers of his account and describing some of the ma

### Translation Strategies

(1) If an aside would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. But if this way of speaking would be confusing, let the speaker continue speaking to the people who are listening to him, but make clear that he is now expressing his thoughts and feelings about them.
(1) If an aside would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. But if this way of speaking would be confusing, let the speaker continue speaking to the people who are listening to him, but make clear that he is now expressing his thoughts and feelings about them.<br>
(2) If a person speaks a prayer to God as an aside, you can put the prayer in quotation marks to indicate that.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-declarative/01.md View File

@@ -34,8 +34,8 @@ By telling a man that his sins were forgiven, **Jesus forgave** the man’s sins

### Translation Strategies

(1) If the function of a statement would not be understood correctly in your language, **use a sentence type** that would express that function.
(2) If the function of a statement would not be understood correctly in your language, **add a sentence type** that would express that function.
(1) If the function of a statement would not be understood correctly in your language, **use a sentence type** that would express that function.<br>
(2) If the function of a statement would not be understood correctly in your language, **add a sentence type** that would express that function.<br>
(3) If the function of a statement would not be understood correctly in your language, **use a verb form** that would express that function.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-distinguish/01.md View File

@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ The phrase “whom I have created” is a reminder of the relationship between G

If readers would understand the purpose of a phrase with a noun, then consider keeping the phrase and the noun together. For languages that use words or phrases with a noun only to distinguish one item from another, here are some strategies for translating phrases that are used to inform or remind.

(1) Put the information in another part of the sentence and add words that show its purpose.
(1) Put the information in another part of the sentence and add words that show its purpose.<br>
(2) Use one of your language’s ways for expressing that this is just added information. It may be by adding a small word, or by changing the way the voice sounds. Sometimes changes in the voice can be shown with punctuation marks, such as parentheses or commas.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-doublenegatives/01.md View File

@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ By using a double negative, John emphasized that the Son of God created absolute

If double negatives are natural and are used to express the positive in your language, consider using them. Otherwise, you could consider these strategies:

(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is simply to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.
(1) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is simply to make a positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives so that it is positive.<br>
(2) If the purpose of a double negative in the Bible is to make a strong positive statement, and if it would not do that in your language, remove the two negatives and put in a strengthening word or phrase such as “very” or “surely” or “absolutely.”

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-doublet/01.md View File

@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ This means that he was like a lamb that did not have any defect—not even one.

If a doublet would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, consider these strategies.

(1) Translate only one of the words or phrases.
(2) If the doublet is used to intensify the meaning, translate one of the words or phrases and add a word that intensifies it such as “very” or “great” or “many.”
(1) Translate only one of the words or phrases.<br>
(2) If the doublet is used to intensify the meaning, translate one of the words or phrases and add a word that intensifies it such as “very” or “great” or “many.”<br>
(3) If the doublet is used to intensify or emphasize the meaning, use one of your language’s ways of doing that.

### Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-euphemism/01.md View File

@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ In order **to be polite**, Mary uses a euphemism to say that she has never had s

If euphemism would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are other options:

(1) Use a euphemism from your own culture.
(1) Use a euphemism from your own culture.<br>
(2) State the information plainly without a euphemism if it would not be offensive.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ If euphemism would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consi

> … where there was a cave. Saul went inside to **cover his feet**. (1 Samuel 24:3b ULT) – Some languages might use euphemisms like these:
>
> > “… where there was a cave. Saul went into the cave to **dig a hole**”
> > “… where there was a cave. Saul went into the cave to **dig a hole**”<br>
> > “… where there was a cave. Saul went into the cave to **have some time alone**”
>
> But Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not **known a man**?” (Luke 1:34 ULT)


+ 2
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translate/figs-events/01.md View File

@@ -22,8 +22,8 @@ This sounds like a person must first open the scroll and then break its seals, b

### Translation Strategies

(1) If your language uses phrases or time words to show that an event happened before one that was already mentioned, consider using one of them.
(2) If your language uses verb tense or aspect to show that an event happened before one that was already mentioned, consider using that. (See the section on “Aspect” of [Verbs](../figs-verbs/01.md).)
(1) If your language uses phrases or time words to show that an event happened before one that was already mentioned, consider using one of them.<br>
(2) If your language uses verb tense or aspect to show that an event happened before one that was already mentioned, consider using that. (See the section on “Aspect” of [Verbs](../figs-verbs/01.md).)<br>
(3) If your language prefers to tell events in the order that they occurred, consider reordering the events so they they are in that order. This may require putting two or more verses together (like 5-6). (See [Verse Bridges](../translate-versebridge/01.md).)

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 4
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translate/figs-exclamations/01.md View File

@@ -30,10 +30,10 @@ Some exclamations in the Bible do not have a main verb. The exclamation below sh

### Translation Strategies

(1) If an exclamation in your language needs a verb, add one. Often a good verb is “is” or “are.”
(2) Use an exclamation word from your language that shows the strong feeling.
(3) Translate the exclamation word with a sentence that shows the feeling.
(4) Use a word that emphasizes the part of the sentence that brings about the strong feeling.
(1) If an exclamation in your language needs a verb, add one. Often a good verb is “is” or “are.”<br>
(2) Use an exclamation word from your language that shows the strong feeling.<br>
(3) Translate the exclamation word with a sentence that shows the feeling.<br>
(4) Use a word that emphasizes the part of the sentence that brings about the strong feeling.<br>
(5) If the strong feeling is not clear in the target language, then tell how the person felt.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-exmetaphor/01.md View File

@@ -38,8 +38,8 @@ In Psalm 23, the psalmist uses the physical **Image** of a shepherd to describe

Consider using the same extended metaphor if your readers will understand it in the same way the original readers would have understood it. If not, here are some other strategies:

(1) If the target audience would think that the images should be understood literally, translate the metaphor as a simile by using words such as “like” or “as.” It may be enough to to do this in just the first sentence or two.
(2) If the target audience would not know the image, find a way of translating it so they can understand what the image is.
(1) If the target audience would think that the images should be understood literally, translate the metaphor as a simile by using words such as “like” or “as.” It may be enough to to do this in just the first sentence or two.<br>
(2) If the target audience would not know the image, find a way of translating it so they can understand what the image is.<br>
(3) If the target audience still would not understand, then state it clearly.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
- 1
translate/figs-explicit/01.md View File

@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ One of the traditions of the elders was a ceremony in which people would wash th

If readers have enough assumed knowledge to be able to understand the message, along with any important implicit information that goes with the explicit information, then it is good to leave that knowledge unstated and leave the implicit information implicit. If the readers do not understand the message because one of these is missing for them, then follow these strategies:

(1) If readers cannot understand the message because they do not have certain assumed knowledge, then provide that knowledge as explicit information.
(1) If readers cannot understand the message because they do not have certain assumed knowledge, then provide that knowledge as explicit information.<br>
(2) If readers cannot understand the message because they do not know certain implicit information, then state that information clearly, but try to do it in a way that does not imply that the information was new to the original audience.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-explicitinfo/01.md View File

@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ In the biblical languages, it was normal to introduce direct speech with two ver

### Translation Strategies

(1) If the explicit information of the source language sounds natural in the target language, then translate it as explicit information.
(1) If the explicit information of the source language sounds natural in the target language, then translate it as explicit information.<br>
(2) If the explicit information does not sound natural in the target language or seems unnecessary or confusing, leave the explicit information implicit. Only do this if the reader can understand this information from the context. You can test this by asking the reader a question about the passage.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-gendernotations/01.md View File

@@ -35,8 +35,8 @@ Jesus was not speaking only of men, but of **men and women**.

If people would understand that that masculine words like “man,” “brother,” and “he” can include women, then consider using them. Otherwise, here are some ways for translating those words when they include women.

(1) Use a noun that can be used for both men and women.
(2) Use a word that refers to men and a word that refers to women.
(1) Use a noun that can be used for both men and women.<br>
(2) Use a word that refers to men and a word that refers to women.<br>
(3) Use pronouns that can be used for both men and women.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 4
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translate/figs-genericnoun/01.md View File

@@ -29,10 +29,10 @@ The phrase “a good man” does not refer to a particular man, but to any perso

If your language can use the same wording as in the ULT to refer to people or things in general rather than to specific individuals or things, consider using the same wording. If not, here are some strategies you might use.

(1) Use the word “the” in the noun phrase.
(2) Use the word “a” in the noun phrase.
(3) Use the word “any,” as in “any person” or “anyone.”
(4) Use the plural form, as in “people.”
(1) Use the word “the” in the noun phrase.<br>
(2) Use the word “a” in the noun phrase.<br>
(3) Use the word “any,” as in “any person” or “anyone.”<br>
(4) Use the plural form, as in “people.”<br>
(5) Use any other way that is natural in your language.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
- 1
translate/figs-go/01.md View File

@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ In some languages, it might make more sense to ask what did you come out to see.

If the word used in the ULT would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are other strategies.

(1) Use the word “go,” “come,” “take,” or “bring” that would be natural in your language.
(1) Use the word “go,” “come,” “take,” or “bring” that would be natural in your language.<br>
(2) Use another word that expresses the right meaning.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 4
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translate/figs-hendiadys/01.md View File

@@ -32,10 +32,10 @@ Titus 2:13 contains two hendiadyses. “The blessed hope” and “appearing of

If the hendiadys would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are other options:

(1) Substitute the describing noun with an adjective that means the same thing.
(2) Substitute the describing noun with a phrase that means the same thing.
(3) Substitute the describing adjective with an adverb that means the same thing.
(4) Substitute other parts of speech that mean the same thing and show that one word or phrase describes the other.
(1) Substitute the describing noun with an adjective that means the same thing.<br>
(2) Substitute the describing noun with a phrase that means the same thing.<br>
(3) Substitute the describing adjective with an adverb that means the same thing.<br>
(4) Substitute other parts of speech that mean the same thing and show that one word or phrase describes the other.<br>
(5) If it is unclear that only one thing is meant, change the phrase so that this is clear.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 5
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translate/figs-hyperbole/01.md View File

@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ This is not hyperbole. Jesus really walked on the water. It is a literal stateme

* Do not assume that the word “all” is always a generalization that means “most.”

> Yahweh is righteous in **all** his ways
> Yahweh is righteous in **all** his ways<br>
> and gracious in **all** he does. (Psalms 145:17 ULT)

Yahweh is always righteous. This is a completely true statement.
@@ -93,9 +93,9 @@ Yahweh is always righteous. This is a completely true statement.

If the hyperbole or generalization would be natural and people would understand it and not think that it is a lie, consider using it. If not, here are other options.

(1) Express the meaning without the exaggeration.
(2) For a generalization, show that it is a generalization by using a phrase like “in general” or “in most cases.”
(3) For a hyperbole or a generalization, add a word like “many” or “almost” to show that the hyperbole or generalization is not meant to be exact.
(1) Express the meaning without the exaggeration.<br>
(2) For a generalization, show that it is a generalization by using a phrase like “in general” or “in most cases.”<br>
(3) For a hyperbole or a generalization, add a word like “many” or “almost” to show that the hyperbole or generalization is not meant to be exact.<br>
(4) For a hyperbole or a generalization that has a word like “all,” “always,” “none,” or “never,” consider deleting that word.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ If the hyperbole or generalization would be natural and people would understand
> The **whole** country of Judea and **all** the people of Jerusalem went out to him. (Mark 1:5a ULT)
>
> > **Almost all** the country of Judea and **almost all** the people of Jerusalem went out to him.
> > or:
> > or:<br>
> > **Many** of the country of Judea and **many** of the people of Jerusalem went out to him.

(4) For a hyperbole or a generalization that has a word like “all,” “always,” “none,” or “never,” consider deleting that word.


+ 1
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translate/figs-idiom/01.md View File

@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ This means, “the one who helps me.”

If the idiom would be clearly understood in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other options.

(1) Translate the meaning plainly without using an idiom.
(1) Translate the meaning plainly without using an idiom.<br>
(2) Use a different idiom that people use in your own language that has the same meaning.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 2
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translate/figs-imperative/01.md View File

@@ -46,8 +46,8 @@ The purpose of Proverbs 22:6, below, is to teach what people can expect to happe

### Translation Strategies

(1) If people would not use an imperative sentence for one of the functions in the Bible, try using a statement instead.
(2) If people would not understand that a sentence is used to cause something to happen, add a connecting word like “so” to show that what happened was a result of what was said.
(1) If people would not use an imperative sentence for one of the functions in the Bible, try using a statement instead.<br>
(2) If people would not understand that a sentence is used to cause something to happen, add a connecting word like “so” to show that what happened was a result of what was said.<br>
(3) If people would not use a command as a condition, translate it as a statement with the words “if” and “then.”

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-informremind/01.md View File

@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ All of God’s judgments are righteous. This is why the person who wrote this ps

If people would understand the purpose of a phrase with a noun, then consider keeping the phrase and the noun together. Otherwise, here are other strategies of showing that the phrase is used to inform or remind.

(1) Put the information in another part of the sentence and add words that show its purpose.
(1) Put the information in another part of the sentence and add words that show its purpose.<br>
(2) Use one of your language’s ways for expressing information in a weak way. It may be by adding a small word or by changing the way the voice sounds. Sometimes changes in the voice can be shown with punctuation marks such as parentheses or commas.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
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translate/figs-infostructure/01.md View File

@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ In this verse, the most important part of the information is first, that “woe

### Translation Strategies

(1) Study how your language arranges the parts of a sentence, and use that order in your translation.
(1) Study how your language arranges the parts of a sentence, and use that order in your translation.<br>
(2) Study where your language puts the new or important information, and rearrange the order of information so that it follows the way it is done in your language.

### Translation Strategies Applied


+ 1
- 1
translate/figs-irony/01.md View File

@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ The Corinthians considered themselves to be very wise, self-sufficient, and not

If the irony would be understood correctly in your language, translate it as it is stated. If not, here are some other strategies.

(1) Translate it in a way that shows that the speaker is saying what someone else believes.
(1) Translate it in a way that shows that the speaker is saying what someone else believes.<br>
(2) The irony is **not** found in the literal words of the speaker, but instead the true meaning is found in the opposite of the literal meaning of the speaker’s words.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


+ 12
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translate/figs-litany/01.md View File

@@ -20,15 +20,15 @@ In this passage Yahweh is telling the people of Edom that they should have helpe

If the litany is understood as it is in the ULT, then translate the litany as it is. If it is not understood, then try one or more of the following strategies.

(1) Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany.
(2) You can put each sentence of the litany on a separate line. Also, if each sentence in the litany has two parts, you can format the litany so that the equivalent parts of each sentence line up. Use this or any other type of formatting that will show that each sentence is reinforcing the same meaning.
(1) Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany.<br>
(2) You can put each sentence of the litany on a separate line. Also, if each sentence in the litany has two parts, you can format the litany so that the equivalent parts of each sentence line up. Use this or any other type of formatting that will show that each sentence is reinforcing the same meaning.<br>
(3) You can eliminate words like “and,” “but,” and “or” at the beginning of sentences so that it will be clearer that the component parts of the litany are all being listed in a row.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied

(1) combined with (3):
Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany;
You can eliminate words like “and,” “but,” and “or” at the beginning of sentences so that it will be clearer that the component parts of the litany are all being listed in a row.
(1) combined with (3):<br>
Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany;<br>
You can eliminate words like “and,” “but,” and “or” at the beginning of sentences so that it will be clearer that the component parts of the litany are all being listed in a row.<br>

> > You did nothing to help the Israelites when strangers carried away their wealth. They conquered all the cities of Judah, and they even plundered Jerusalem. And you were just as bad as those foreigners, because you did nothing to help:
>
@@ -36,16 +36,16 @@ You can eliminate words like “and,” “but,” and “or” at the beginning

In the above example, verse 11 provides the summary and meaning for the litany that follows in verses 12-14.

(1) combined with (2):
Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany;
You can put each sentence of the litany on a separate line. Also, if each sentence in the litany has two parts, you can format the litany so that the equivalent parts of each sentence line up. Use this or any other type of formatting that will show that each sentence is reinforcing the same meaning.
(1) combined with (2):<br>
Often in the Bible there will be a general statement at the beginning or end of a litany that sums up its overall meaning. You can format that statement in a way that will show that it is a summary statement that gives the meaning of the litany;<br>
You can put each sentence of the litany on a separate line. Also, if each sentence in the litany has two parts, you can format the litany so that the equivalent parts of each sentence line up. Use this or any other type of formatting that will show that each sentence is reinforcing the same meaning.<br>

> > Not one of them will get away, not one of them will escape:
>
> Though they dig into Sheol,                                        there my hand will take them.
Though they climb up to heaven,                                      there I will bring them down.
Though they hide on the top of Carmel,                                   there I will search and take them.
Though they are hidden from my sight in the bottom of the sea,  there will I give orders to the serpent, and it will bite them.
> Though they dig into Sheol,                                        there my hand will take them.<br>
Though they climb up to heaven,                                      there I will bring them down.<br>
Though they hide on the top of Carmel,                                   there I will search and take them.<br>
Though they are hidden from my sight in the bottom of the sea,  there will I give orders to the serpent, and it will bite them.<br>
Though they go into captivity, driven by their enemies before them, there will I give orders to the sword, and it will kill them. (Amos 9:1b–4 ULT)

In the above example, the sentence before the litany explains its overall meaning. That sentence can be placed as an introduction. The second half of each sentence can be formatted in a descending staircase pattern as above, or lined up evenly like the first half of each sentence, or in another way. Use whatever format best shows that these sentences are all communicating the same truth, that it is not possible to escape from God.

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translate/figs-merism/01.md View File

@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ The bolded phrase is merism because it speaks of old people and young people and

If the merism would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are other options:

(1) Identify what the merism refers to without mentioning the parts.
(1) Identify what the merism refers to without mentioning the parts.<br>
(2) Identify what the merism refers to and include the parts.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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- 7
translate/figs-metaphor/01.md View File

@@ -106,13 +106,13 @@ If people would understand the metaphor in the same way that the original reader

If people do not or would not understand it, here are some other strategies.

(1) If the metaphor is a common expression in the source language or expresses a patterned pair of concepts in a biblical language (that is, it is a passive metaphor), then express the **Idea** in the simplest way preferred by your language.
(2) If the metaphor seems to be an active metaphor, you can translate it literally **if you think that the target language also uses this metaphor in the same way to mean the same thing as in the Bible**. If you do this, be sure to test it to make sure that the language community understands it correctly.
(3) If the target audience does not realize that it is a metaphor, then change the metaphor to a simile. Some languages do this by adding words such as “like” or “as.” See [Simile](../figs-simile/01.md).
(4) If the target audience would not know the **Image**, see [Translate Unknowns](../translate-unknown/01.md) for ideas on how to translate that image.
(5) If the target audience would not use that **Image** for that meaning, use an image from your own culture instead. Be sure that it is an image that could have been possible in Bible times.
(6) If the target audience would not know what the **Topic** is, then state the topic clearly. (However, do not do this if the original audience did not know what the Topic was.)
(7) If the target audience would not know the intended similarity (the **Idea**) between the topic and the image, then state it clearly.
(1) If the metaphor is a common expression in the source language or expresses a patterned pair of concepts in a biblical language (that is, it is a passive metaphor), then express the **Idea** in the simplest way preferred by your language.<br>
(2) If the metaphor seems to be an active metaphor, you can translate it literally **if you think that the target language also uses this metaphor in the same way to mean the same thing as in the Bible**. If you do this, be sure to test it to make sure that the language community understands it correctly.<br>
(3) If the target audience does not realize that it is a metaphor, then change the metaphor to a simile. Some languages do this by adding words such as “like” or “as.” See [Simile](../figs-simile/01.md).<br>
(4) If the target audience would not know the **Image**, see [Translate Unknowns](../translate-unknown/01.md) for ideas on how to translate that image.<br>
(5) If the target audience would not use that **Image** for that meaning, use an image from your own culture instead. Be sure that it is an image that could have been possible in Bible times.<br>
(6) If the target audience would not know what the **Topic** is, then state the topic clearly. (However, do not do this if the original audience did not know what the Topic was.)<br>
(7) If the target audience would not know the intended similarity (the **Idea**) between the topic and the image, then state it clearly.<br>
(8) If none of these strategies is satisfactory, then simply state the **Idea** plainly without using a metaphor.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-metonymy/01.md View File

@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ The word “wrath” or “anger” is a metonym for “punishment.” God was e

If people would easily understand the metonym, consider using it. Otherwise, here are some options.

(1) Use the metonym along with the name of the thing it represents.
(1) Use the metonym along with the name of the thing it represents.<br>
(2) Use only the name of the thing the metonym represents.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-parables/01.md View File

@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ This parable teaches that the kingdom of God may seem small at first, but it wil

### Translation Strategies

(1) If a parable is hard to understand because it has unknown objects in it, you can replace the unknown objects with objects that people in your culture know. However, be careful to keep the lesson the same.
(1) If a parable is hard to understand because it has unknown objects in it, you can replace the unknown objects with objects that people in your culture know. However, be careful to keep the lesson the same.<br>
(2) If the teaching of the parable is unclear, consider telling a little about what it teaches in the introduction, such as “Jesus told this story about being generous.”

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-pastforfuture/01.md View File

@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ Enoch was speaking of something that would happen in the future, but he used the

If the past tense would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other options.

(1) Use the future tense to refer to future events.
(2) If it refers to something in the immediate future, use a form that would show that.
(1) Use the future tense to refer to future events.<br>
(2) If it refers to something in the immediate future, use a form that would show that.<br>
(3) Some languages may use the present tense to show that something will happen very soon.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-personification/01.md View File

@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ The author speaks of wisdom and understanding as if they were woman who calls ou

If the personification would be understood clearly, consider using it. If it would not be understood, here are some other ways for translating it.

(1) Add words or phrases to make the human (or animal) characteristic clear.
(2) In addition to Strategy (1), use words such as “like” or “as” to show that the sentence is not to be understood literally.
(1) Add words or phrases to make the human (or animal) characteristic clear.<br>
(2) In addition to Strategy (1), use words such as “like” or “as” to show that the sentence is not to be understood literally.<br>
(3) Find a way to translate it without the personification.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-possession/01.md View File

@@ -85,16 +85,16 @@ In the example below, **Christ loves us**.

### Strategies for learning what the relationship is between the two nouns

(1) Read the surrounding verses to see if they help you to understand the relationship between the two nouns.
(2) Read the verse in the UST. Sometimes it shows the relationship clearly.
(1) Read the surrounding verses to see if they help you to understand the relationship between the two nouns.<br>
(2) Read the verse in the UST. Sometimes it shows the relationship clearly.<br>
(3) See what the notes say about it.

### Translation Strategies

If possession would be a natural way to show a particular relationship between two nouns, consider using it. If it would be strange or hard to understand, consider these.

(1) Use an adjective to show that one noun describes the other.
(2) Use a verb to show how the two are related.
(1) Use an adjective to show that one noun describes the other.<br>
(2) Use a verb to show how the two are related.<br>
(3) If one of the nouns refers to an event, translate it as a verb.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-quotations/01.md View File

@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ The verses in the examples below contain both direct and indirect quotations. In

If the kind of quote used in the source text would work well in your language, consider using it. If the kind of quote used in that context is not natural for your language, follow these strategies.

(1) If a direct quote would not work well in your language, change it to an indirect quote.
(1) If a direct quote would not work well in your language, change it to an indirect quote.<br>
(2) If an indirect quote would not work well in your language, change it to a direct quote.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-quotemarks/01.md View File

@@ -49,8 +49,8 @@ A fourth layer direct quote has single quotation marks around it. We have printe

Here are some ways you may be able to help readers see where each quote starts and ends so they can more easily know who said what.

(1) Alternate two kinds of quote marks to show layers of direct quotation. English alternates double quote marks and single quote marks.
(2) Translate one or some of the quotes as indirect quotes in order to use fewer quote marks, since indirect quotes do not need them. (See [Direct and Indirect Quotations](../figs-quotations/01.md).)
(1) Alternate two kinds of quote marks to show layers of direct quotation. English alternates double quote marks and single quote marks.<br>
(2) Translate one or some of the quotes as indirect quotes in order to use fewer quote marks, since indirect quotes do not need them. (See [Direct and Indirect Quotations](../figs-quotations/01.md).)<br>
(3) If a quotation is very long and has many layers of quotation in it, indent the main overall quote, and use quote marks only for the direct quotes inside of it.

### Examples of Quote Marking Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-quotesinquotes/01.md View File

@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ The outermost layer is what the messengers said to the king. The second layer is

Some languages use only direct quotes. Other languages use a combination of direct quotes and indirect quotes. In those languages it might sound strange and perhaps even be confusing if there are many layers of direct quotes.

(1) Translate all of the quotes as direct quotes.
(1) Translate all of the quotes as direct quotes.<br>
(2) Translate one or some of the quotes as indirect quotes. (See [Direct and Indirect Quotations](../figs-quotations/01.md).)

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md View File

@@ -38,10 +38,10 @@ Reflexive pronouns are used to show that someone or something was alone.

If a reflexive pronoun would have the same function in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other strategies.

(1) In some languages people put something on the verb to show that the object of the verb is the same as the subject.
(2) In some languages people emphasize a certain person or thing by referring to it in a special place in the sentence.
(3) In some languages people emphasize a certain person or thing by adding something to that word or putting another word with it.
(4) In some languages people show that someone did something alone by using a word like “alone.”
(1) In some languages people put something on the verb to show that the object of the verb is the same as the subject.<br>
(2) In some languages people emphasize a certain person or thing by referring to it in a special place in the sentence.<br>
(3) In some languages people emphasize a certain person or thing by adding something to that word or putting another word with it.<br>
(4) In some languages people show that someone did something alone by using a word like “alone.”<br>
(5) In some languages people show that something was alone by using a phrase that tells about where it was.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-rquestion/01.md View File

@@ -56,9 +56,9 @@ When you know the purpose of the rhetorical question, then think of the most nat

If using the rhetorical question would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider doing so. If not, here are other options:

(1) Add the answer after the question.
(2) Change the rhetorical question to a statement or exclamation.
(3) Change the rhetorical question to a statement, and then follow it with a short question.
(1) Add the answer after the question.<br>
(2) Change the rhetorical question to a statement or exclamation.<br>
(3) Change the rhetorical question to a statement, and then follow it with a short question.<br>
(4) Change the form of the question so that it communicates in your language what the original speaker communicated in his.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-sentencetypes/01.md View File

@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ Exclamations express strong feeling. In the ULT and UST, they usually have an ex

### Translation Strategies

(1) Use your language’s ways of showing that a sentence has a particular function.
(1) Use your language’s ways of showing that a sentence has a particular function.<br>
(2) When a sentence in the Bible has a sentence type that your language would not use for the sentence’s function, see the pages below for translation strategies.

* [Statements – Other Uses](../figs-declarative/01.md)


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translate/figs-simile/01.md View File

@@ -39,8 +39,8 @@ This verse does not tell how the Son of Man will be like the lightning. But in c

If people would understand the correct meaning of a simile, consider using it. If they would not, here are some strategies you can use:

(1) If people do not know how the two items are alike, tell how they are alike. However, do not do this if the meaning was not clear to the original audience.
(2) If people are not familiar with the item that something is compared to, use an item from your own culture. Be sure that it is one that could have been used in the cultures of the Bible. If you use this strategy, you may want to put the original item in a footnote.
(1) If people do not know how the two items are alike, tell how they are alike. However, do not do this if the meaning was not clear to the original audience.<br>
(2) If people are not familiar with the item that something is compared to, use an item from your own culture. Be sure that it is one that could have been used in the cultures of the Bible. If you use this strategy, you may want to put the original item in a footnote.<br>
(3) Simply describe the item without comparing it to another.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-synonparallelism/01.md View File

@@ -36,8 +36,8 @@ The two parts of this verse say that Yahweh has a serious disagreement with his

If your language uses parallelism in the same way as the biblical languages (that is, to strengthen a single idea), then it would be appropriate to use it in your translation. But if your language does not use parallelism in this way, then consider using one of the following translation strategies.

(1) Combine the ideas of both clauses into one.
(2) If it appears that the clauses are used together to show that what they say is really true, you could include words that emphasize the truth such as “truly” or “certainly.”
(1) Combine the ideas of both clauses into one.<br>
(2) If it appears that the clauses are used together to show that what they say is really true, you could include words that emphasize the truth such as “truly” or “certainly.”<br>
(3) If it appears that the clauses are used together to intensify an idea in them, you could use words like “very,” “completely” or “all.”

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/figs-youdual/01.md View File

@@ -27,9 +27,9 @@ James wrote this letter to many people, so the word “you” refers to many peo

### Strategies for finding out how many people “you” refers to

(1) Look at the translationNotes to see if they tell whether “you” refers to one person or more than one person.
(2) Look at the UST to see if it says anything that would show you whether the word “you” refers to one person or more than one person.
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.
(1) Look at the translationNotes to see if they tell whether “you” refers to one person or more than one person.<br>
(2) Look at the UST to see if it says anything that would show you whether the word “you” refers to one person or more than one person.<br>
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.<br>
(4) Look at the context to see who the speaker was talking to and who responded.

You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_youdual.

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translate/figs-yousingular/01.md View File

@@ -28,9 +28,9 @@ Paul wrote this letter to one person, Titus. Most of the time the word “you”

#### Strategies for finding out how many people “you” refers to

(1) Look at the notes to see if they tell whether “you” refers to one person or more than one person.
(2) Look at the UST to see if it says anything that would show you whether the word “you” refers to one person or more than one person.
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.
(1) Look at the notes to see if they tell whether “you” refers to one person or more than one person.<br>
(2) Look at the UST to see if it says anything that would show you whether the word “you” refers to one person or more than one person.<br>
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.<br>
(4) Look at the context to see how many people the speaker was talking to and who responded.

You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_younum.

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translate/grammar-connect-condition-contrary/01.md View File

@@ -37,10 +37,10 @@ The English reader knows that these last two examples are Contrary-to-Fact condi

If Contrary-to-Fact conditions are clear in your language, then use them as they are.

(1) If the condition leads the reader to think that the speaker believes something that is false, then restate the condition as something that others believe.
(2) If the condition leads the reader to think that the speaker is suggesting that the first part is true, then restate it as a statement that it is not true.
(3) If the condition is expressing something that did not happen but the speaker wanted it to happen, restate it as a wish.
(4) If the condition is expressing something that did not happen, restate it as a negative statement.
(1) If the condition leads the reader to think that the speaker believes something that is false, then restate the condition as something that others believe.<br>
(2) If the condition leads the reader to think that the speaker is suggesting that the first part is true, then restate it as a statement that it is not true.<br>
(3) If the condition is expressing something that did not happen but the speaker wanted it to happen, restate it as a wish.<br>
(4) If the condition is expressing something that did not happen, restate it as a negative statement.<br>
(5) Often Factual and Contrary-to-Fact conditions are used to make reasoned arguments for a change in behavior. If translators are struggling to know the best way to translate them, it could be helpful to discuss how this is done in their language community. If someone is trying to convince people to change their behavior, how do they do that? It may be possible to adapt similar strategies when translating these conditions.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical/01.md View File

@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ There are two hypothetical conditions here: (1) If it is true that this plan is

#### Translation Strategies

(1) If the order of clauses makes the hypothetical condition confusing, then change the order of the clauses.
(1) If the order of clauses makes the hypothetical condition confusing, then change the order of the clauses.<br>
(2) If it is not clear where the second event is, mark that part with a word like “then.”

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-exceptions/01.md View File

@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ English indicates exceptional relationships by first describing a group (Part 1)

If the way that Exceptional Clauses are marked in the source language is also clear in your language, then translate the Exceptional Clauses in the same way.

(1) Very often, the exception in Part 2 contradicts something that was negated in Part 1. In this case, the translator can phrase the same idea without the contradiction by deleting the negative and using a word like “**only**.”
(1) Very often, the exception in Part 2 contradicts something that was negated in Part 1. In this case, the translator can phrase the same idea without the contradiction by deleting the negative and using a word like “**only**.”<br>
(2) Reverse the order of the clauses so that the exception is stated first, and then the larger group is named second.

#### Examples of Translation Strategy Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-logic-contrast/01.md View File

@@ -34,8 +34,8 @@ There are two contrasts here, marked with “however” and “but.” The first

If your language uses contrast relationships in the same way as in the text, then use them as they are.

(1) If the contrast relationship between the clauses is not clear, then use a connecting word or phrase that is more specific or more clear.
(2) If it is more clear in your language to mark the other clause of the contrast relationship, then use a connecting word on the other clause.
(1) If the contrast relationship between the clauses is not clear, then use a connecting word or phrase that is more specific or more clear.<br>
(2) If it is more clear in your language to mark the other clause of the contrast relationship, then use a connecting word on the other clause.<br>
(3) If your language shows a contrast relationship in a different way, then use that way.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-logic-goal/01.md View File

@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ The purpose of the vine growers killing the heir was so they could take his inhe

If your language uses Goal or Purpose relationships in the same way as in the text, then use them as they are.

(1) If the construction of the Goal statement is unclear, change it to one that is more clear.
(1) If the construction of the Goal statement is unclear, change it to one that is more clear.<br>
(2) If the order of the statements makes the Goal statement unclear or confusing for the reader, then change the order.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-logic-result/01.md View File

@@ -40,8 +40,8 @@ The **result** is that Joshua circumcised the boys and men who had been born in

If your language uses reason-and-result relationships in the same way as in the text, then use them as they are.

(1) If the order of the clauses is confusing for the reader, then change the order.
(2) If the relationship between the clauses is not clear, then use a more clear connecting word.
(1) If the order of the clauses is confusing for the reader, then change the order.<br>
(2) If the relationship between the clauses is not clear, then use a more clear connecting word.<br>
(3) If it is more clear to put a connecting word in the clause that does not have one, then do so.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-time-background/01.md View File

@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ This example begins with five background clauses (marked by commas), signalled a

If the way that the Background Clauses are marked is also clear in your language, then translate the Background Clauses as they are.

(1) If the connecting word does not make it clear that what follows is a Background Clause, use a connecting word that communicates this more clearly.
(1) If the connecting word does not make it clear that what follows is a Background Clause, use a connecting word that communicates this more clearly.<br>
(2) If your language marks Background Clauses in a different way than using connecting words (such as by using different verb forms), then use that way.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-time-sequential/01.md View File

@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Here the general connector “**and**” connects four events. These are sequent

If the sequence of events is clear in your language, then translate the sequence as it is.

(1) If the connecting word is not clear, use a connecting word that communicates the sequence more clearly.
(1) If the connecting word is not clear, use a connecting word that communicates the sequence more clearly.<br>
(2) If the clauses are in an order that makes the sequence unclear, put the clauses in an order that is more clear.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-time-simultaneous/01.md View File

@@ -34,8 +34,8 @@ Three events happened at the same time – the disciples looking, Jesus going up

If the way that the simultaneous clauses are marked also is clear in your language, then translate the simultaneous clauses as they are.

(1) If the connecting word does not make it clear that the simultaneous clauses are happening at the same time, use a connecting word that communicates this more clearly.
(2) If it is not clear which clause the simultaneous clause is connected to, and that they are happening at the same time, mark all of the clauses with a connecting word.
(1) If the connecting word does not make it clear that the simultaneous clauses are happening at the same time, use a connecting word that communicates this more clearly.<br>
(2) If it is not clear which clause the simultaneous clause is connected to, and that they are happening at the same time, mark all of the clauses with a connecting word.<br>
(3) If your language marks events as simultaneous in a different way than using connecting words, then use that way.

#### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/grammar-connect-words-phrases/01.md View File

@@ -65,8 +65,8 @@ Here the words “so that” connect what follows as the reason for what came be

If the way the relationship between thoughts is shown in the ULT would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, then consider using it. If not, here are some other options.

(1) Use a connecting word (even if the ULT does not use one).
(2) Do not use a connecting word if it would be strange to use one and people would understand the right relationship between the thoughts without it.
(1) Use a connecting word (even if the ULT does not use one).<br>
(2) Do not use a connecting word if it would be strange to use one and people would understand the right relationship between the thoughts without it.<br>
(3) Use a different connecting word.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples/01.md View File

@@ -40,8 +40,8 @@ Just as today, human father-son relationships during Bible times were never as l

### Translation Strategies

(1) Think through all the possibilities within your language to translate the words “son” and “father.” Determine which words in your language best represent the divine “Son” and “Father.”
(2) If your language has more than one word for “son,” use the word that has the closest meaning to “only son” (or “first son” if necessary).
(1) Think through all the possibilities within your language to translate the words “son” and “father.” Determine which words in your language best represent the divine “Son” and “Father.”<br>
(2) If your language has more than one word for “son,” use the word that has the closest meaning to “only son” (or “first son” if necessary).<br>
(3) If your language has more than one word for “father,” use the word that has the closest meaning to “birth father,” rather than “adoptive father.”

(See *God the Father* and *Son of God* pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](https://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating “Father” and “Son.”)

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translate/resources-porp/01.md View File

@@ -16,6 +16,6 @@ When many scholars say that a word or phrase means one thing, and many others sa

### Translation Strategies

(1) Translate it in such a way that the reader could understand either meaning as a possibility.
(2) If it is not possible to do that in your language, then choose a meaning and translate it with that meaning.
(1) Translate it in such a way that the reader could understand either meaning as a possibility.<br>
(2) If it is not possible to do that in your language, then choose a meaning and translate it with that meaning.<br>
(3) If not choosing a meaning would make it hard for the readers to understand the passage in general, then choose a meaning and translate it with that meaning.

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translate/translate-bdistance/01.md View File

@@ -29,10 +29,10 @@ The metric values in the table below are close but not exactly equal to the bibl

### Translation Strategies

(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.
(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)<br>
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.<br>
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.<br>
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.<br>
(5) Use measurements that your people know, and include the measurements from the ULT in the text or in a note.

### Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-bmoney/01.md View File

@@ -26,10 +26,10 @@ Do not use modern money values since these change from year to year. Using them

The value of most money in the Old Testament was based on its weight. So when translating these weights in the Old Testament, see [Biblical Weight](../translate-bweight/01.md). The strategies below are for translating the value of money in the New Testament.

(1) Use the Bible term and spell it in a way that is similar to the way it sounds. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)
(2) Describe the value of the money in terms of what kind of metal it was made of and how many coins were used.
(3) Describe the value of the money in terms of what people in Bible times could earn in one day of work.
(4) Use the biblical term and give the equivalent amount in the text or a footnote.
(1) Use the Bible term and spell it in a way that is similar to the way it sounds. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)<br>
(2) Describe the value of the money in terms of what kind of metal it was made of and how many coins were used.<br>
(3) Describe the value of the money in terms of what people in Bible times could earn in one day of work.<br>
(4) Use the biblical term and give the equivalent amount in the text or a footnote.<br>
(5) Use the biblical term and explain it in a footnote.

### Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-bvolume/01.md View File

@@ -28,10 +28,10 @@ The following terms are the most common units of volume used in the Bible to sta

### Translation Strategies

(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.
(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)<br>
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.<br>
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.<br>
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.<br>
(5) Use measurements that your people know, and include the measurements from the ULT in the text or in a note.

### Translation Strategies Applied
@@ -76,9 +76,9 @@ Sometimes the Hebrew does not specify a particular unit of volume but only uses

### Translation Strategies

(1) Translate literally by using the number without a unit.
(2) Use a generic word like “measure” or “quantity” or “amount.”
(3) Use the name of an appropriate container, such as “basket” for grain or “jar” for wine.
(1) Translate literally by using the number without a unit.<br>
(2) Use a generic word like “measure” or “quantity” or “amount.”<br>
(3) Use the name of an appropriate container, such as “basket” for grain or “jar” for wine.<br>
(4) Use a unit of measure that you are already using in your translation.

### Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-bweight/01.md View File

@@ -22,10 +22,10 @@ The following terms are the most common units of weight in the Bible. The term

### Translation Strategies

(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this, you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.
(1) Use the measurements from the ULT. These are the same kinds of measurements that the original writers used. Spell them in a way that is similar to the way they sound or are spelled in the ULT. (See [Copy or Borrow Words](../translate-transliterate/01.md).)<br>
(2) Use the metric measurements given in the UST. The translators of the UST have already figured how to represent the amounts in the metric system.<br>
(3) Use measurements that are already used in your language. In order to do this, you would need to know how your measurements relate to the metric system and figure out each measurement.<br>
(4) Use the measurements from the ULT and include measurements that your people know in the text or a note.<br>
(5) Use measurements that your people know, and include the measurements from the ULT in the text or in a note.

### Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-fraction/01.md View File

@@ -40,8 +40,8 @@ They were to imagine dividing a hin of wine into four equal parts and prepare th

If a fraction in your language would give the right meaning, consider using it. If not, you could consider these strategies.

(1) Tell the number of parts or groups that the item would be divided into, and then tell the number of parts or groups that is being referred to.
(2) For measurements such as for weight and length, use a unit that your people might know or the unit in the UST.
(1) Tell the number of parts or groups that the item would be divided into, and then tell the number of parts or groups that is being referred to.<br>
(2) For measurements such as for weight and length, use a unit that your people might know or the unit in the UST.<br>
(3) For measurements, use ones that are used in your language. In order to do that you would need to know how your measurements relates to the metric system and figure out each measurement.

### Examples of These Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-hebrewmonths/01.md View File

@@ -47,9 +47,9 @@ This is a list of the Hebrew months with information about them that may be help

You may need to make some information about the months explicit. (See [Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information](../figs-explicit/01.md).)

(1) Tell the number of the Hebrew month.
(2) Use the names for months that people know.
(3) State clearly what season the month occurred in.
(1) Tell the number of the Hebrew month.<br>
(2) Use the names for months that people know.<br>
(3) State clearly what season the month occurred in.<br>
(4) Refer to the time in terms of the season rather than in terms of the Hebrew name of the month. (If possible, use a footnote to show the Hebrew month and day.)

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-names/01.md View File

@@ -43,10 +43,10 @@ Readers may not know that the names Saul and Paul refer to the same person.

### Translation Strategies

(1) If readers cannot easily understand from the context what kind of a thing a name refers to, you can add a word to clarify it.
(2) If readers need to understand the meaning of a name in order to understand what is said about it, copy the name and tell about its meaning either in the text or in a footnote.
(3) Or if readers need to understand the meaning of a name in order to understand what is said about it, and that name is used only once, translate the meaning of the name instead of copying the name.
(4) If a person or place has two different names, use one name most of the time and the other name only when the text tells about the person or place having more than one name or when it says something about why the person or place was given that name. Write a footnote when the source text uses the name that is used less frequently.
(1) If readers cannot easily understand from the context what kind of a thing a name refers to, you can add a word to clarify it.<br>
(2) If readers need to understand the meaning of a name in order to understand what is said about it, copy the name and tell about its meaning either in the text or in a footnote.<br>
(3) Or if readers need to understand the meaning of a name in order to understand what is said about it, and that name is used only once, translate the meaning of the name instead of copying the name.<br>
(4) If a person or place has two different names, use one name most of the time and the other name only when the text tells about the person or place having more than one name or when it says something about why the person or place was given that name. Write a footnote when the source text uses the name that is used less frequently.<br>
(5) Or if a person or place has two different names, then use whatever name is given in the source text, and add a footnote that gives the other name.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-numbers/01.md View File

@@ -32,10 +32,10 @@ This is a rounded number. It does not say exactly how many descendants she shoul

### Translation Strategies

(1) Write numbers using numerals.
(2) Write numbers using your language’s words or the Gateway Language words for those numbers.
(3) Write numbers using words, and put the numerals in parentheses after them.
(4) Combine words for large numbers.
(1) Write numbers using numerals.<br>
(2) Write numbers using your language’s words or the Gateway Language words for those numbers.<br>
(3) Write numbers using words, and put the numerals in parentheses after them.<br>
(4) Combine words for large numbers.<br>
(5) Use a very general expression for very large rounded numbers and write the numeral in parentheses afterward.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-ordinal/01.md View File

@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ This describes four rows of stones. The first row is probably the top row, and t

If your language has ordinal numbers and using them would give the right meaning, consider using them. If not, here are some strategies to consider:

(1) Use “one” with the first item and “another” or “the next” with the rest.
(1) Use “one” with the first item and “another” or “the next” with the rest.<br>
(2) Tell the total number of items and then list them or the things associated with them.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-symaction/01.md View File

@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@ Meaning of symbolic action: When people wanted someone to welcome them into thei

If people would correctly understand what a symbolic action meant to the people in the Bible, consider using it. If not, here are some strategies for translating it.

(1) Tell what the person did and why he did it.
(2) Do not tell what the person did, but tell what he meant.
(1) Tell what the person did and why he did it.<br>
(2) Do not tell what the person did, but tell what he meant.<br>
(3) Use an action from your own culture that has the same meaning. Do this only in poetry, parables, and sermons. Do not do this when there actually was a person who did a specific action.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-transliterate/01.md View File

@@ -28,8 +28,8 @@ There are several things to be aware of when borrowing words from another langua

There are several ways to borrow a word.

(1) If your language uses a different script from the language you are translating from, you can simply substitute each letter shape with the corresponding letter shape of the script of your language.
(2) You can spell the word as the Other Language spells it, and pronounce it the way your language normally pronounces those letters.
(1) If your language uses a different script from the language you are translating from, you can simply substitute each letter shape with the corresponding letter shape of the script of your language.<br>
(2) You can spell the word as the Other Language spells it, and pronounce it the way your language normally pronounces those letters.<br>
(3) You can pronounce the word similarly to the way the Other Language does, and adjust the spelling to fit the rules of your language.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/translate-unknown/01.md View File

@@ -45,10 +45,10 @@ People in many parts of the world have not seen snow, but they may have seen it

Here are ways you might translate a term that is not known in your language:

(1) Use a phrase that describes what the unknown item is, or what is important about the unknown item for the verse being translated.
(2) Substitute something similar from your language if doing so does not falsely represent a historical fact.
(3) Copy the word from another language, and add a general word or descriptive phrase to help people understand it.
(4) Use a word that is more general in meaning.
(1) Use a phrase that describes what the unknown item is, or what is important about the unknown item for the verse being translated.<br>
(2) Substitute something similar from your language if doing so does not falsely represent a historical fact.<br>
(3) Copy the word from another language, and add a general word or descriptive phrase to help people understand it.<br>
(4) Use a word that is more general in meaning.<br>
(5) Use a word or phrase that is more specific in meaning.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-background/01.md View File

@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ These verses give the setting of the story. The events took place in a grain fie

To keep translations clear and natural you will need to study how people tell stories in your language. Observe how your language marks background information. You may need to write down some stories in order to study this. Observe what kinds of verbs your language uses for background information and what kinds of words or other markers signal that something is background information. Do these same things when you translate, so that your translation is clear and natural and people can understand it easily.

(1) Use your language’s way of showing that certain information is background information.
(1) Use your language’s way of showing that certain information is background information.<br>
(2) Reorder the information so that earlier events are mentioned first. (This is not always possible when the background information is very long.)

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-newevent/01.md View File

@@ -40,9 +40,9 @@ Verse 6 is a statement of the events that happen in the rest of chapter 7. Chapt

If the information given at the beginning of a new event is clear and natural to your readers, consider translating it as it is in the ULT or UST. If not, consider one of these strategies:

(1) Put the information that introduces the event in the order that your people put it.
(2) If readers would expect certain information but it is not in the Bible, consider using an indefinite word or phrase to fill in that information, such as: “another time” or “someone.”
(3) If the introduction is a summary of the whole event, use your language’s way of showing that it is a summary.
(1) Put the information that introduces the event in the order that your people put it.<br>
(2) If readers would expect certain information but it is not in the Bible, consider using an indefinite word or phrase to fill in that information, such as: “another time” or “someone.”<br>
(3) If the introduction is a summary of the whole event, use your language’s way of showing that it is a summary.<br>
(4) If it would be strange in the target language to give a summary of the event at the beginning, indicate that the event would actually happen later in the story.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-participants/01.md View File

@@ -44,8 +44,8 @@ Some languages place an affix on the verb that tells something about the subject

### Translation Strategies

(1) If the participant is new, use one of your language’s ways of introducing new participants.
(2) If it is not clear to whom a pronoun refers, use a noun phrase or name.
(1) If the participant is new, use one of your language’s ways of introducing new participants.<br>
(2) If it is not clear to whom a pronoun refers, use a noun phrase or name.<br>
(3) If an old participant is referred to by name or a noun phrase, and people wonder if this is another new participant, try using a pronoun instead. If a pronoun is not needed because people would understand it clearly from the context, then leave out the pronoun.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-poetry/01.md View File

@@ -88,8 +88,8 @@ This example repeats the phrases “give thanks” and “his covenant faithfuln

If the style of poetry that is used in the source text would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other ways of translating it.

(1) Translate the poetry using one of your styles of poetry.
(2) Translate the poetry using your style of elegant speech.
(1) Translate the poetry using one of your styles of poetry.<br>
(2) Translate the poetry using your style of elegant speech.<br>
(3) Translate the poetry using your style of ordinary speech.

If you use poetry it may be more beautiful.


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translate/writing-pronouns/01.md View File

@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Jesus is the main character of the book of Matthew, but in the verses below he i

### Translation Strategies

(1) If it would not be clear to your readers to whom or to what a pronoun refers, use a name or a noun.
(1) If it would not be clear to your readers to whom or to what a pronoun refers, use a name or a noun.<br>
(2) If repeating a noun or name would lead people to think that a main character is not a main character, or that the writer is talking about more than one person with that name, or that there is some kind of emphasis on someone when there is no emphasis, use a pronoun instead.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-proverbs/01.md View File

@@ -33,9 +33,9 @@ This means that Yahweh protects people who do what is right, but he destroys tho

If translating a proverb literally would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider doing that. If not, here are some options:

(1) Find out how people say proverbs in your language, and use one of those ways.
(2) If certain objects in the proverb are not known to many people in your language group, consider replacing them with objects that people know and that function in the same way in your language.
(3) Substitute a proverb in your language that has the same teaching as the proverb in the Bible.
(1) Find out how people say proverbs in your language, and use one of those ways.<br>
(2) If certain objects in the proverb are not known to many people in your language group, consider replacing them with objects that people know and that function in the same way in your language.<br>
(3) Substitute a proverb in your language that has the same teaching as the proverb in the Bible.<br>
(4) Give the same teaching but not in a form of a proverb.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-quotations/01.md View File

@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ When writing that someone said something, some languages put the quote (what was

### Translation Strategies

(1) Decide where to put the quote margin.
(1) Decide where to put the quote margin.<br>
(2) Decide whether to use one or two words meaning “said.”

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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translate/writing-symlanguage/01.md View File

@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ This passage explains the meaning of the seven lampstands and the seven stars. T

### Translation Strategies

(1) Translate the text with the symbols. Often the speaker or author explains the meaning later in the passage.
(1) Translate the text with the symbols. Often the speaker or author explains the meaning later in the passage.<br>
(2) Translate the text with the symbols. Then explain the symbols in footnotes.

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied


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