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Small fixes plus prepare v20 for publication (#482)

Small fixes plus prepare v20 for publication

Co-authored-by: Robert Hunt <Freely.Given.org@gmail.com>
Reviewed-on: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/pulls/482
Co-Authored-By: Robert Hunt <robh@noreply.door43.org>
Co-Committed-By: Robert Hunt <robh@noreply.door43.org>
tags/v20
Robert Hunt 1 year ago
parent
commit
42df1f53c9
77 changed files with 114 additions and 166 deletions
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LICENSE.md View File

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**Copyright © 2021 by unfoldingWord**

This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.
This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) or send a letter to Creative Commons, PO Box 1866, Mountain View, CA 94042, USA.

unfoldingWord® is a registered trademark of unfoldingWord. Use of the unfoldingWord name or logo requires the written permission of unfoldingWord. Under the terms of the CC BY-SA license, you may copy and redistribute this unmodified work as long as you keep the unfoldingWord® trademark intact. If you modify a copy or translate this work, thereby creating a derivative work, you must remove the unfoldingWord® trademark.



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## Downloading

If you want to download unfoldingWord® Translation Academy to use, go here: [https://www.unfoldingword.org/uta](https://www.unfoldingword.org/uta). UTA is also included in [tS](http://ufw.io/ts) and [tC](http://ufw.io/tc).
If you want to download unfoldingWord® Translation Academy to use, go here: [https://www.unfoldingword.org/uta](https://www.unfoldingword.org/uta). UTA is also included in [tS](https://ufw.io/ts) and [tC](https://ufw.io/tc).

## Improving UTA

@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ There are also YAML formatted files in each manual’s directory. The `toc.yaml`

### UTA Translation Philosophy

To learn the philosophy of how to translate the UTA please see the [Translate unfoldingWord® Translation Academy](http://gl-manual.readthedocs.io/en/latest/gl_translation.html#translating-translationacademy) article in the [Gateway Language Manual](http://gl-manual.readthedocs.io/).
To learn the philosophy of how to translate the UTA please see the [Translate unfoldingWord® Translation Academy](https://gl-manual.readthedocs.io/en/latest/gl_translation.html#translating-translationacademy) article in the [Gateway Language Manual](https://gl-manual.readthedocs.io/).

NOTE: The Bible was originally written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. In these languages, masculine pronouns and terms can apply to both men and women. The same is true in English, and in this manual we often use masculine terms to refer to both men and women. For example, in this manual we often use masculine pronouns to refer to people like you (and other translators) who will use this manual. But we do not intend to say that only men can use this manual or to say that only men can translate the Bible. We are simply using masculine terms to refer to both men and women.

@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ If you are translating online, please fork the [Door43-Catalog/en_ta](https://gi
* *Do not* rename any files or directories. Only translate what is inside the files.
* The `config.yaml` and `toc.yaml` files do not need to be changed unless you add a new module. When you are finished translating, you may want to update the `title` fields in the `toc.yaml` file, but you shouldn’t make any other changes in those files.
* Images that are included in UTA should be no more than 600px wide. NOTE: If you use the images already in UTA, you do not need to translate the names of the image files. They will work in their current format.
* Hyperlinks (links to other articles or to other pages on the internet) follow this pattern: `[text to display](http://www.example.com)`. You can translate the “text to display” inside the square brackets but not the web address that follows inside the parentheses.
* Hyperlinks (links to other articles or to other pages on the internet) follow this pattern: `[text to display](https://www.example.com)`. You can translate the “text to display” inside the square brackets but not the web address that follows inside the parentheses.

You are free to add additional modules. In order for the new modules to be included, all of the following conditions need to be satisfied:



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* Were the people introduced in each story doing the same things as those mentioned in the source language translation? (Was it easy to see who was doing the events of the new translation when it was compared to the source language?)
* Are there any unfoldingWord® Translation Words used in the new translation that do not match your understanding of the words in the source version? Think about things like this: How do your people talk about a priest (one who sacrifices to God) or a temple (the sacrifice place of the Jews) without using a word borrowed from the source language?
* Are the phrases used in the new translation helpful in understanding the more difficult phrases of the source translation? (Are the phrases of the new translation put together in a way that brings better understanding yet still fits with the meaning of the source language translation?)
* Another way to determine if the text is accurate is to ask comprehension questions about the translation, such as, “who did what, when, where, how, and why?” There are questions that have already been prepared to help with this. (To view the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions go to http://ufw.io/tq/.) The answers to those questions should be the same as the answers to those questions about the source language translation. If they are not, there is a problem in the translation.
* Another way to determine if the text is accurate is to ask comprehension questions about the translation, such as, “who did what, when, where, how, and why?” There are questions that have already been prepared to help with this. (To view the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions go to https://ufw.io/tq/.) The answers to those questions should be the same as the answers to those questions about the source language translation. If they are not, there is a problem in the translation.

For more general types of things that need to be checked, go to [Types of Things to Check](../vol2-things-to-check/01.md).

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To check for naturalness, you will read or play a recording of a section of the translation to members of the language community. Before you read or play the translation, tell the people listening that you want them to stop you if they hear something that is not natural in their language. (For more information on how to check a translation for naturalness, see [Natural Translation](../natural/01.md).) When they stop you, ask what was not natural, and ask how they would say it in a more natural way. Write down or record their answer, along with the chapter and verse where this phrase was, so that the translation team can consider using this way of saying the phrase in the translation.

To check the translation for clarity, there is a set of questions and answers for each *Open Bible Story* and for each chapter of the Bible that you can use. When members of the language community can answer the questions easily, you will know that the translation is clear. (See http://ufw.io/tq/ for the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions.)
To check the translation for clarity, there is a set of questions and answers for each *Open Bible Story* and for each chapter of the Bible that you can use. When members of the language community can answer the questions easily, you will know that the translation is clear. (See https://ufw.io/tq/ for the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions.)

To use these questions, follow these steps:



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* Throughout the translation and checking process, the translation draft will be uploaded to and maintained in a repository under the username that you have chosen on the Door43 website. This is where translationStudio and translationCore send the drafts when you tell them to upload.
* When checking has been completed and all appropriate edits have been made to the translation on door43, the checkers or church leaders will inform unfoldingWord of their desire to publish. They will provide unfoldingWord with the documents affirming that the [Pastors](../good/01.md), the [Community](../community-evaluation/01.md), and the [Church Network Leaders](../level3-approval/01.md) affirm that the translation is trustworthy. The documents also contain an affirmation of the unfoldingWord [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md) and the unfoldingWord [Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md). All translated content is expected to be in accordance with the theology of the Statement of Faith. We also expect that the translators have followed the procedures and methodologies of the Translation Guidelines. unfoldingWord has no way to verify the accuracy of the translations or the affirmations, and so we rely on the integrity of the leadership of the church networks.
* After obtaining these affirmations, unfoldingWord will then make a copy of the translation that is on Door43, digitally publish a static copy of it on the unfoldingWord website (see http://www.unfoldingword.org), and make it available on the unfoldingWord mobile app. A print-ready PDF will also be produced and made available for download. It will continue to be possible to change the checked version on Door43, allowing for future checking and editing.
* After obtaining these affirmations, unfoldingWord will then make a copy of the translation that is on Door43, digitally publish a static copy of it on the unfoldingWord website (see https://www.unfoldingword.org), and make it available on the unfoldingWord mobile app. A print-ready PDF will also be produced and made available for download. It will continue to be possible to change the checked version on Door43, allowing for future checking and editing.
* unfoldingWord will also need to know the version number of the source that was used for the translation. This number will be incorporated into the version number for the translation so that it will be easy to keep track of the state of the source and the translation as they both improve and change over time. For information about version numbers, see [Source Texts and Version Numbers](../../translate/translate-source-version/01.md).

### Ongoing Checking

The process and checking framework described in this document depends on an ongoing process of checking and revising content, as determined by the Church that uses the content. We encourage each translation team to continue to accept feedback from the language and church community. By doing so, they can continue to improve the translation by incorporating corrections and including better ways of saying things as people discover them. For that reason, the translations of the content continue to be made available on the translation platform (see http://door43.org) indefinitely so that users can continue to improve it. We recommend that the translation committee invite input from the language community to Door43, and appoint one or more people to monitor the issues that people submit there for the translation. These people can make corrections to the translation and discuss other suggested changes with the translation committee. Over time, the committee may decide to adjust the style of the translation as well, such as to add or remove implied information or to use newer words or phrases. By maximizing input in this way from the greatest number of users of the content, the Church can work together to create biblical content that increases in quality and usability over time.
The process and checking framework described in this document depends on an ongoing process of checking and revising content, as determined by the Church that uses the content. We encourage each translation team to continue to accept feedback from the language and church community. By doing so, they can continue to improve the translation by incorporating corrections and including better ways of saying things as people discover them. For that reason, the translations of the content continue to be made available on the translation platform (see https://door43.org) indefinitely so that users can continue to improve it. We recommend that the translation committee invite input from the language community to Door43, and appoint one or more people to monitor the issues that people submit there for the translation. These people can make corrections to the translation and discuss other suggested changes with the translation committee. Over time, the committee may decide to adjust the style of the translation as well, such as to add or remove implied information or to use newer words or phrases. By maximizing input in this way from the greatest number of users of the content, the Church can work together to create biblical content that increases in quality and usability over time.

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There are several resources available for finding answers to questions:

* **unfoldingWord® Translation Academy** – This training manual is available at http://ufw.io/ta and has much information including:
* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) – introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) – answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) – explains the basics of translation theory and provides practical translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) – explains the basics of checking theory and best practices
* **Door43 Slack** – Join the Door43 community, post your questions to the “#helpdesk” channel, and get real-time answers to your questions (sign up at http://ufw.io/door43)
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Academy** – This training manual is available at https://ufw.io/ta and has much information including:
* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) – introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) – answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) – explains the basics of translation theory and provides practical translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) – explains the basics of checking theory and best practices
* **Door43 Slack** – Join the Door43 community, post your questions to the “#helpdesk” channel, and get real-time answers to your questions (sign up at https://ufw.io/door43)
* **Door43 Forum** – A place to ask questions and get answers to technical, strategic, translation, and checking issues, https://forum.door43.org/
* **Helpdesk** – email <help@door43.org> with your questions

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**The official version of this document is found at http://ufw.io/gl/.**
**The official version of this document is found at https://ufw.io/gl/.**

### Explanation



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### A License for Freedom

To achieve our vision of **the church in every people group and the Bible in every language**, a license is needed that gives the global church “unrestricted” access. We believe this movement will become unstoppable when the Church has unrestricted access. The [Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) provides all the needed rights for translation and distribution of biblical content and ensures that the content remains unrestricted. Except where otherwise noted, all our content is licensed CC BY-SA.
To achieve our vision of **the church in every people group and the Bible in every language**, a license is needed that gives the global church “unrestricted” access. We believe this movement will become unstoppable when the Church has unrestricted access. The [Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) provides all the needed rights for translation and distribution of biblical content and ensures that the content remains unrestricted. Except where otherwise noted, all our content is licensed CC BY-SA.

**The official license for Door43 is found at https://door43.org/en/legal/license.**

### Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0)

This is a human-readable summary of (and not a substitute for) the [license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/).
This is a human-readable summary of (and not a substitute for) the [license](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/).

#### You are free to:

@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ This principle applies to trademarks from other organizations as well. The CC BY

On the derivative work, you must indicate what changes you have made and attribute the work as follows: “The original work by unfoldingWord is available from unfoldingword.org/uta.” You must also make your derivative work available under the same license (CC BY-SA).

Suggested attribution statement for Door43 works: “Original work created by the Door43 World Missions Community, available at http://door43.org/, and released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). This work has been changed from the original, and the original authors have not endorsed this work.”
Suggested attribution statement for Door43 works: “Original work created by the Door43 World Missions Community, available at https://door43.org/, and released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). This work has been changed from the original, and the original authors have not endorsed this work.”

Other works on Door43 may have different suggestions for attribution, please check the LICENSE files that are distributed with the content.

@@ -54,9 +54,9 @@ Contributors to projects on Door43 agree that **the attribution that occurs auto

Source texts may only be used if they have one of the following licenses:

* **[CC0 Public Domain Dedication (CC0)](http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)**
* **[CC Attribution (CC BY)](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)**
* **[CC Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/)**
* **[Free Translate License](http://ufw.io/freetranslate/)**
* **[CC0 Public Domain Dedication (CC0)](https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)**
* **[CC Attribution (CC BY)](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)**
* **[CC Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/)**
* **[Free Translate License](https://ufw.io/freetranslate/)**

See [Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../../translate/translate-source-licensing/01.md) for more information.

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**The official version of this document is found at http://ufw.io/faith.**
**The official version of this document is found at https://ufw.io/faith.**

The following statement of faith is in agreement with these historical creeds: [Apostles’ Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/apostles.md), [Nicene Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/nicene.md), and [Athanasian Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/athanasian.md); and also the [Lausanne Covenant](http://www.lausanne.org/en/documents/lausanne-covenant.html).
The following statement of faith is in agreement with these historical creeds: [Apostles’ Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/apostles.md), [Nicene Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/nicene.md), and [Athanasian Creed](https://git.door43.org/Door43/en_creeds/src/master/content/athanasian.md); and also the [Lausanne Covenant](https://www.lausanne.org/en/documents/lausanne-covenant.html).

We believe that Christian belief can and should be divided into **essential beliefs** and **peripheral beliefs** (Romans 14).



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**The official version of this document is found at http://ufw.io/guidelines/.**
**The official version of this document is found at https://ufw.io/guidelines/.**

The following statement on the principles and procedures used in translation is subscribed to by unfoldingWord and its contributors. All translation activities are carried out according to these common guidelines.



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@@ -40,8 +40,8 @@ We create and make available for translation free and unrestricted biblical cont
We create translation, checking, and distribution tools that are free and open-licensed. See https://www.unfoldingword.org/tools for a complete list of tools. Here are a few samples:

* **Door43** – an online translation platform where people can collaborate on translation and checking, also the content and translation management system (see https://door43.org/).
* **translationStudio** – a mobile app and a desktop app where translators can do offline translating (see http://ufw.io/ts/).
* **unfoldingWord app** – a mobile app where Open Bible Stories and Bible translations can be distributed (see http://ufw.io/uw/).
* **translationStudio** – a mobile app and a desktop app where translators can do offline translating (see https://ufw.io/ts/).
* **unfoldingWord app** – a mobile app where Open Bible Stories and Bible translations can be distributed (see https://ufw.io/uw/).
* **translationCore** – a program that enables comprehensive checking of Bible translations (see https://translationcore.com).

#### Training


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description: 'A modular handbook that provides a condensed explanation of Bible translation and checking principles that the global Church has implicitly affirmed define trustworthy translations. It enables translators to learn how to create trustworthy translations of the Bible in their own language.'
format: 'text/markdown'
identifier: 'ta'
issued: '2021-02-22'
issued: '2021-04-07'
language:
identifier: 'en'
title: 'English'
direction: 'ltr'
modified: '2021-02-22'
modified: '2021-04-07'
publisher: 'unfoldingWord®'
relation:
- 'en/ust'
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-
identifier: 'ta'
language: 'en'
version: '18'
version: '19'
subject: 'Translation Academy'
title: 'unfoldingWord® Translation Academy'
type: 'man'
version: '19'
version: '20'

checking:
checking_entity:


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### Publishing Overview

Once a work has been uploaded to Door43, it is automatically available online under your user account. This is referred to as self-publishing. You will have access to a web version of your project at http://door43.org/u/user_name/project_name (where user_name is your username and project_name is your translation project). Both translationStudio and translationCore will give you the correct link when you upload. You can also browse all works on http://door43.org.
Once a work has been uploaded to Door43, it is automatically available online under your user account. This is referred to as self-publishing. You will have access to a web version of your project at https://door43.org/u/user_name/project_name (where user_name is your username and project_name is your translation project). Both translationStudio and translationCore will give you the correct link when you upload. You can also browse all works on https://door43.org.

From your Door43 project page you can:



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### Recommended Platform

The recommended platform for drafting Bible translations in the Door43 online community is translationStudio (http://ufw.io/ts/). The recommended platform for checking Bible translations is translationCore (http://ufw.io/tc/). You may set up translationStudio on Android, Windows, Mac, or Linux devices (see [Setting up translationStudio](../setup-ts/01.md) for more information). You may set up translationCore on Windows, Mac, or Linux devices. These platforms are free to download and use. They import and export Bible books in USFM format.
The recommended platform for drafting Bible translations in the Door43 online community is translationStudio (https://ufw.io/ts/). The recommended platform for checking Bible translations is translationCore (https://ufw.io/tc/). You may set up translationStudio on Android, Windows, Mac, or Linux devices (see [Setting up translationStudio](../setup-ts/01.md) for more information). You may set up translationCore on Windows, Mac, or Linux devices. These platforms are free to download and use. They import and export Bible books in USFM format.

### Other Options



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@@ -4,10 +4,10 @@ As you begin selecting a translation and checking team, there are many different

* [Choosing a Translation Team](../../translate/choose-team/01.md) – Describes many of the roles that are needed
* [Translator Qualifications](../../translate/qualifications/01.md) – Describes some of the skills needed by the translators
* Remember that everyone on the team needs to sign a statement that they agree with (forms are available at http://ufw.io/forms)
* [Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md)
* [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md)
* [Open License](../../intro/open-license/01.md)
* Remember that everyone on the team needs to sign a statement that they agree with (forms are available at https://ufw.io/forms)
* [Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md)
* [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md)
* [Open License](../../intro/open-license/01.md)
* Everyone on the team also needs to know the qualities of a good translation (see [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../../translate/guidelines-intro/01.md)).
* The team also needs to know where they can find answers (see [Finding Answers](../../intro/finding-answers/01.md)).

@@ -16,8 +16,8 @@ As you begin selecting a translation and checking team, there are many different
There are many decisions the translation team will need to make, many of them right at the beginning of the project. Included are the following:

* [Choosing a Source Text](../../translate/translate-source-text/01.md) – Choosing a good source text is very important
* [Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../../translate/translate-source-licensing/01.md) – Copyright issues must be considered when choosing a source text
* [Source Texts and Version Numbers](../../translate/translate-source-version/01.md) – Translating from the latest version of a source text is best
* [Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../../translate/translate-source-licensing/01.md) – Copyright issues must be considered when choosing a source text
* [Source Texts and Version Numbers](../../translate/translate-source-version/01.md) – Translating from the latest version of a source text is best
* [Alphabet/Orthography](../../translate/translate-alphabet/01.md) – Many languages have alphabet decisions that need to be made
* [Decisions for Writing Your Language](../../translate/writing-decisions/01.md) – Writing style, punctuation, translating names, spelling, and other decisions have to be made
* [Translation Style](../../translate/choose-style/01.md) – The translation committee needs to agree on the style of the translation in the sense of how much they want it to imitate the form of the source, how much borrowing of words is allowed, and other topics. See also this section on making the translation [Acceptable](../../checking/acceptable/01.md).


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### Installing tS for Mobile

The mobile (Android) edition of translationStudio is available from the [Google Play Store](https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.translationstudio.androidapp ) or via direct download from http://ufw.io/ts/. If you install from the Play Store, then you will be notified by the Play Store when a new version is available. Note that you may also copy the installation file (apk) to other devices to share translationStudio with others without using the internet.
The mobile (Android) edition of translationStudio is available from the [Google Play Store](https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.translationstudio.androidapp ) or via direct download from https://ufw.io/ts/. If you install from the Play Store, then you will be notified by the Play Store when a new version is available. Note that you may also copy the installation file (apk) to other devices to share translationStudio with others without using the internet.

### Installing tS for Desktop

The latest version of translationStudio for desktop or laptop computers (Windows, Mac, or Linux) is available from http://ufw.io/ts/. To install the program, navigate to the “Desktop” section and download the latest release. Note that you may also copy the installation file to other computers to share translationStudio with others without using the internet.
The latest version of translationStudio for desktop or laptop computers (Windows, Mac, or Linux) is available from https://ufw.io/ts/. To install the program, navigate to the “Desktop” section and download the latest release. Note that you may also copy the installation file to other computers to share translationStudio with others without using the internet.

### Using tS



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@@ -29,4 +29,4 @@ After finishing Open Bible Stories, you will have gained enough skill and experi

Repeat these steps with each Bible book.

Plan to have someone from the translation team continue to maintain the translation on [Door43](http://git.door43.org), editing it to correct errors and improve it according to suggestions from the church community. The translation can easily be downloaded and reprinted as often as desired.
Plan to have someone from the translation team continue to maintain the translation on [Door43](https://git.door43.org), editing it to correct errors and improve it according to suggestions from the church community. The translation can easily be downloaded and reprinted as often as desired.

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In our translation helps, we use the term **cultural model** to refer to either an extended metaphor or a complex metaphor that is widely used within a specific culture but which may or may not be used within a different culture. See [Biblical Imagery – Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md) for a list of some cultural models found in the Bible.


### Cultural Models

Cultural models are complex metaphors that people use to help them imagine and talk about various aspects of life and behavior. For example, Americans often think of many things, including marriage and friendship, as if they were machines. Americans might say, “His marriage is breaking up,” or “Their friendship is going full speed ahead.” Often, cultural models that are used in the Bible are not explicitly stated, but must be learned by reading large amounts of text and looking for images and metaphors that are repeated in many different contexts.


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> For Yahweh says this, “See, the enemy will come flying like an **eagle**, spreading out his wings over Moab.” (Jeremiah 48:40 ULT)


#### SHEEP or a FLOCK OF SHEEP represents people who need to be led or are in danger

> My people have been a lost **flock**. Their shepherds have led them astray in the mountains. (Jeremiah 50:6 ULT)


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@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ Some common [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md) and [metaphors](../figs-metapho

#### THRESHING and WINNOWING represent the separation of evil people from good people

After farmers harvest wheat and other types of grain, they bring them to a **threshing floor**, a flat place with hard ground, and have oxen pull heavy wheeled carts or sleds without wheels over the grain to **thresh** it, to separate the usable grains from the useless chaff. Then they take large forks and **winnow** the threshed grain by throwing it up in the air so the wind can carry off the chaff (waste) while the grains fall back to the threshing floor, where they can be gathered and used for food. (See “thresh” and “winnow” pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](http://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating thresh and winnow.)
After farmers harvest wheat and other types of grain, they bring them to a **threshing floor**, a flat place with hard ground, and have oxen pull heavy wheeled carts or sleds without wheels over the grain to **thresh** it, to separate the usable grains from the useless chaff. Then they take large forks and **winnow** the threshed grain by throwing it up in the air so the wind can carry off the chaff (waste) while the grains fall back to the threshing floor, where they can be gathered and used for food. (See “thresh” and “winnow” pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](https://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating thresh and winnow.)

> So I will **winnow** them with a pitchfork at the gates of the land. I will bereave them. I will destroy my people since they will not turn from their ways. (Jeremiah 15:7 ULT)
>


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@@ -26,17 +26,14 @@ In 1 Kings 7:50, a lamp trimmer is a tool for trimming the wick on an ordinary l

> Solomon also had made the cups, lamp trimmers, basins, spoons, and incense burners, all of which were made of pure gold. (1 Kings 7:50a ULT)


> Ishbibenob … intended to kill David. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah rescued David, attacked the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, “You must not go to battle anymore with us, so that you do not put out the **lamp** of Israel.” (2 Samuel 21:16-17 ULT)


(3) Expressions that are based on these pairings of ideas frequently combine together in complex ways. Moreover, they frequently combine with (and in some cases are based on) common metonymies and cultural models. (See [Biblical Imagery – Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md) and [Biblical Imagery – Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)

For example, in 2 Samuel 14:7 below, “the burning coal” is an image for the life of the son, who represents what will cause people to remember his father. So there are two patterns of pairings here: the pairing of the burning coal with the life of the son, and the pairing of the son with the memory of his father.

> They say, ‘Hand over the man who struck his brother, so that we may put him to death, to pay for the life of his brother whom he killed.’ And so they would also destroy the heir. Thus they will put out **the burning coal** that I have left, and they will leave for **my husband neither name nor descendant** on the surface of the earth. (2 Samuel 14:7 ULT)


#### Links to Lists of Images in the Bible

The following pages have lists of some of the Images that represent Ideas in the Bible, together with examples from the Bible. They are organized according to the kinds of image:


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Abstract nouns are nouns that refer to attitudes, qualities, events, or situations. These are things that cannot be seen or touched in a physical sense, such as happiness, weight, unity, friendship, health, and reason. This is a translation issue because some languages may express a certain idea with an abstract noun, while others would need a different way to express it.


### Description

Abstract nouns are nouns that refer to attitudes, qualities, events, or situations. These are things that cannot be seen or touched in a physical sense, such as happiness, weight, unity, friendship, health, and reason. This is a translation issue because some languages may express a certain idea with an abstract noun, while others would need a different way to express it.

Remember that nouns are words that refer to a person, place, thing, or idea. Abstract nouns are the nouns that refer to ideas. These can be attitudes, qualities, events, situations, or even relationships between those ideas. These are things that cannot be seen or touched in a physical sense, such as joy, peace, creation, goodness, contentment, justice, truth, freedom, vengeance, slowness, length, weight, and many, many more.

Some languages, such as Biblical Greek and English, use abstract nouns a lot.They provide a way of giving names to actions or qualities. With names, people who speak these languages can talk about the concepts as though they were things. For example, in languages that use abstract nouns, people can say, “I believe in the forgiveness of sin.”


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@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ Many languages do not use asides, and readers could be confused by them. They ma

### Examples From the Bible

> All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
> The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
> They of your bread will set a trap under you.
> All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
> The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
> They of your bread will set a trap under you.
> **There is no understanding in him.** (Obadiah 1:7 ULT)

In the first three lines, Yahweh is telling the people of Edom what will happen to them because they did not help the people of Judah. In the fourth line, Yahweh says something about Edom to himself.
@@ -28,17 +28,17 @@ Nehemiah is speaking to the readers of his account and describing some of the ma

(1)

> All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
They of your bread will set a trap under you.
**There is no understanding in him.** (Obadiah 1:7 ULT)
> All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
They of your bread will set a trap under you.
**There is no understanding in him.** (Obadiah 1:7 ULT)

All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
They of your bread will set a trap under you.
All the men of your covenant are sending you away as far as the border.
The men of your peace are deceiving you and are prevailing against you.
They of your bread will set a trap under you.
**You do not understand any of this.**

(2)
(2)
> And I purified them from everything foreign. And I caused the service watches to stand: for the priests and for the Levites, a man in his work; 31 and for the offering of pieces of wood at the appointed times; and for the firstfruits. **Remember me, my God, for good.** (Nehemiah 13:30-31 ULT)

And I cleansed them from everything foreign, and I made assignments for the priests and for the Levites, a man to his own work. And the wood offering at the stated time, and the firstfruits. **“Remember me, my God, for good.”**

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(1) Put the information in another part of the sentence and add words that show its purpose.

> I hate those who serve **worthless** idols (Psalm 31:6 ULT)
> I hate those who serve **worthless** idols (Psalm 31:6 ULT)

By saying “worthless idols,” David was commenting about all idols and giving his reason for hating those who serve them. He was not distinguishing worthless idols from valuable idols.
>
@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ By saying “worthless idols,” David was commenting about all idols and giving
>
> > … for your judgments are good **because they are righteous**.
>
> Can Sarah, **who is 90 years old**, bear a son? (Genesis 17:17b ULT)
> Can Sarah, **who is 90 years old**, bear a son? (Genesis 17:17b ULT)

The phrase “who is 90 years old” is a reminder of Sarah’s age. It tells why Abraham was asking the question. He did not expect that a woman who was that old could bear a child.
>
@@ -82,6 +82,6 @@ The phrase “who is 90 years old” is a reminder of Sarah’s age. It tells wh

> You are my Son, **whom I love**. I am pleased with you. (Luke 3:22 ULT)
>
> > You are my Son. **I love you** and I am pleased with you.
> > You are my Son. **I love you** and I am pleased with you.

> > **Receiving my love**, you are my Son. I am pleased with you.

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@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ If euphemism would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consi
>
> But Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not **known a man**?” (Luke 1:34 ULT)
>
> > But Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not **slept with a man**?”
> > But Mary said to the angel, “How will this be, since I have not **slept with a man**?”

(2) State the information plainly without a euphemism if it would not be offensive.



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@@ -54,4 +54,4 @@ This sounds like a person must first open the scroll and then break its seals, b
>
> > Who is worthy to break the seals and open the scroll?

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs\_events.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs\_events.

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> Save us, Lord; we are about to die! (Matthew 8:25b ULT)


> When the demon had been driven out, the mute man spoke. The crowds were astonished and said, “This has never been seen before in Israel!” (Matthew 9:33 ULT)

### Reason This Is a Translation Issue


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@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ The Bible was first written in the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek languages. Like En

> They said, “There are not more than five loaves of bread and two fish with us—unless **we** go and buy food for all these people.” (Luke 9:13 ULT)

In the second clause, the disciples are talking about some of them going to buy food. They were speaking to Jesus, but Jesus was not going to buy food. So languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” would use the **exclusive** form there.
In the second clause, the disciples are talking about some of them going to buy food. They were speaking to Jesus, but Jesus was not going to buy food. So languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” would use the **exclusive** form there.

> **We** have seen it, and **we** bear witness to it. **We** are announcing to you the eternal life, which was with the Father, and which has been made known to **us**. (1 John 1:2 ULT)

@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ John is telling people who have not seen Jesus what he and the other apostles ha

> The shepherds said one to each other, “Let **us** now go to Bethlehem, and see this thing that has happened, which the Lord has made known to **us**.” (Luke 2:15b ULT)

The shepherds were speaking to one another. When they said “us,” they were including the people they were speaking to, so languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” and “us” would use the **inclusive** form in this verse.
The shepherds were speaking to one another. When they said “us,” they were including the people they were speaking to, so languages that have inclusive and exclusive forms of “we” and “us” would use the **inclusive** form in this verse.

> Now it happened that on one of those days, he indeed got into a boat with his disciples, and he said to them, “Let **us** go over to the other side of the lake.” So they set sail. (Luke 8:22 ULT)



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> Moses said, ‘If **someone** dies, not having children, **his** **brother** must marry **his** wife and have children for **his** **brother**.’ (Matthew 22:24 ULT)


### Translation Strategies

If people would understand that that masculine words like “man,” “brother,” and “he” can include women, then consider using them. Otherwise, here are some ways for translating those words when they include women.


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@@ -79,4 +79,4 @@ Find out how people speaking your language show:

Use your language’s ways of showing these kinds of things.

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_hypo.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_hypo.

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> God blessed them and said to them, “**Be fruitful**, and **multiply**. **Fill** the earth, and **subdue** it. **Have dominion** over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.” (Genesis 1:28 ULT)


#### Imperatives that function as conditions

An imperative sentence can also be used to tell the **condition** under which something will happen. The proverbs mainly tell about life and things that often happen. The purpose of Proverbs 4:6 below is not primarily to give a command, but to teach what people can expect to happen **if** they love wisdom.


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@@ -26,7 +26,6 @@ This bolded phrase is a merism because it speaks of the east and the west and ev

The bolded phrase is merism because it speaks of old people and young people and everyone in between. It means “everyone.”


### Translation Strategies

If the merism would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are other options:


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@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ Every metaphor has three parts:

* The **Idea**, the abstract concept or quality that the physical **Image** brings to the mind of the hearer when he thinks of how the **Image** and the **Topic** are similar. Often, the **Idea** of a metaphor is not explicitly stated in the Bible, but it is only implied from the context. The hearer or reader usually needs to think of the **Idea** himself.


Using these terms, we can say that a metaphor is a figure of speech that uses a physical **Image** to apply an abstract **Idea** to the speaker’s **Topic**.

Usually, a writer or speaker uses a metaphor in order to express something about a **Topic**, with at least one **Point of Comparison** (**Idea**) between the **Topic** and the **Image**. Often in metaphors, the **Topic** and the **Image** are explicitly stated, but the **Idea** is only implied. The writer/speaker often uses a metaphor in order to invite the readers/listeners to think about the similarity between the **Topic** and the **Image** and to figure out for themselves the **Idea** that is being communicated.


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@@ -31,7 +31,6 @@ The **object** is often the thing that the subject does something to.
* Peter sang **the song** well.
* Peter ate **good food**.


#### Verb

The verb shows an action or a state of being.
@@ -80,5 +79,4 @@ Word order can also change
* Use your language’s preferred word order unless there is some reason in your language to change it.
* Translate the sentence so that the meaning is accurate and clear and so that it sounds natural.


You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_order.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_order.

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@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ A temporal phrase is made of words that tell when something happens, how long it

When another part of speech (other than a temporal phrase or negative particle) appears before the verb, usually (but not always) it is because the writer/speaker is emphasizing that particular item as the most important information in the sentence.


### Word Order in Biblical Aramaic

Most scholars agree that word order is so free in Biblical Aramaic that no distinct patterns of standard word order can be observed. Therefore, it is best to assume that word order has no affect on the meaning of a sentence in Aramaic.

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@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ Parallelism is a poetic device in which two phrases or clauses that are similar

Parallelism is most commonly found in Old Testament poetry, such as in the books of Psalms and Proverbs. It also occurs in Greek in the New Testament, both in the four gospels and in the apostles’ letters.

This article will only discuss synonymous parallelism, the kind in which the two parallel phrases mean the same thing, because that is the kind that presents a problem for translation. Note that we use the term “synonymous parallelism” for long phrases or clauses that have the same meaning. We use the term ["doublet"](../figs-doublet/01.md) for words or very short phrases that mean basically the same thing and are used together.
This article will only discuss synonymous parallelism, the kind in which the two parallel phrases mean the same thing, because that is the kind that presents a problem for translation. Note that we use the term “synonymous parallelism” for long phrases or clauses that have the same meaning. We use the term [“doublet”](../figs-doublet/01.md) for words or very short phrases that mean basically the same thing and are used together.

In the poetry of the original languages, synonymous parallelism has several effects:

@@ -26,24 +26,24 @@ Some languages would not use synonymous parallelism. They would either think it
> Your word is a lamp to my feet<br>
> and a light for my path. (Psalm 119:105 ULT)

Both parts of the sentence are metaphors saying that God’s word teaches people how to live. That is the single idea. The words “lamp” and “light” are similar in meaning because they refer to light. The words “my feet” and “my path” are related because they refer to a person walking. Walking is a metaphor for living.
Both parts of the sentence are metaphors saying that God’s word teaches people how to live. That is the single idea. The words “lamp” and “light” are similar in meaning because they refer to light. The words “my feet” and “my path” are related because they refer to a person walking. Walking is a metaphor for living.

> You make him to rule over the works of your hands;<br>
> you have put all things under his feet (Psalm 8:6 ULT)

Both lines say that God made man the ruler of everything. "To rule over" is the same idea as putting things "under his feet," and "the works of your [God's] hands" is the same idea as "all things."
Both lines say that God made man the ruler of everything. “To rule over” is the same idea as putting things “under his feet,” and “the works of your [God's] hands” is the same idea as “all things.”

> Yahweh sees everything a person does<br>
> and watches all the paths he takes. (Proverbs 5:21 ULT)

The first phrase and the second phrase mean the same thing. There are three ideas that are the same between these two phrases. “Sees” corresponds to “watches,” “everything…does” corresponds to “all the paths…takes,” and “a person” corresponds to “he.”

> Praise Yahweh, all you nations; <br>
> Praise Yahweh, all you nations;<br>
> exalt him, all you peoples! (Psalm 117:1 ULT)

Both parts of this verse tell people everywhere to praise Yahweh. The words ‘Praise’ and ‘exalt’ mean the same thing. The words ‘Yahweh’ and ‘him’ refer to the same person. The terms ‘all you nations’ and ‘all you peoples’ refer to the same people.

> For Yahweh has a lawsuit with his people, <br>
> For Yahweh has a lawsuit with his people,<br>
> and he will fight in court against Israel. (Micah 6:2b ULT)

The two parts of this verse say that Yahweh has a serious disagreement with his people, Israel. These are not two different disagreements or two different groups of people.
@@ -60,19 +60,19 @@ For most kinds of parallelism, it is good to translate both of the clauses or ph

(1) Combine the ideas of both clauses into one.

> Until now you have dealt deceitfully with me and you have spoken lies to me. (Judges 16:13, ULT)<br>
> Until now you have dealt deceitfully with me and you have spoken lies to me. (Judges 16:13, ULT)<br>

Delilah expressed this idea twice to emphasize that she was very upset.

> > Until now you have deceived me with your lies.

> Yahweh sees everything a person does and watches all the paths he takes. (Proverbs 5:21 ULT)<br>
> Yahweh sees everything a person does and watches all the paths he takes. (Proverbs 5:21 ULT)<br>

The phrase “all the paths he takes” is a metaphor for “all he does.”

> > Yahweh pays attention to everything a person does.

> For Yahweh has a lawsuit with his people, and he will fight in court against Israel. (Micah 6:2 ULT)<br>
> For Yahweh has a lawsuit with his people, and he will fight in court against Israel. (Micah 6:2 ULT)<br>

This parallelism describes one serious disagreement that Yahweh had with one group of people. If this is unclear, the phrases can be combined:



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translate/figs-pastforfuture/01.md View File

@@ -18,15 +18,12 @@ Readers who are not aware of the past tense being used in prophecy to refer to f
> For to us a child has been born, to us a son has been given;
> and the rule will be on his shoulder. (Isaiah 9:6a ULT)


In the examples above, God spoke of things that would happen in the future as if they had already happened.

> But even Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about them, saying, “Look! The Lord came with thousands and thousands of his holy ones.” (Jude 1:14 ULT)


Enoch was speaking of something that would happen in the future, but he used the past tense when he said “the Lord came.”


### Translation Strategies

If the past tense would be natural and give the right meaning in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other options.


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translate/figs-personification/01.md View File

@@ -56,5 +56,4 @@ If the personification would be understood clearly, consider using it. If it wou
> Even the **winds and the sea obey him**. (Matthew 8:27b ULT) – The men speak of the “wind and the sea” as if they are able to hear and obey Jesus, just as people can. This could also be translated without the idea of obedience by speaking of Jesus controlling them.
> > He even **controls the winds and the sea**.


**NOTE**: We have broadened our definition of “personification” to include “zoomorphism” (speaking of other things as if they had animal characteristics) and “anthropomorphism” (speaking of non-human things as if they had human characteristics) because the translation strategies for them are the same.

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translate/figs-possession/01.md View File

@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ Possession is used in Hebrew, Greek, and English for a variety of situations. He
* my head – the head that is part of my body
* the roof of a house – the roof that is part of a house

In some languages there is a special form of possession, termed **inalienable possession.** This form of possession is used for things that cannot be removed from you, as opposed to things you could lose. In the examples above, *my head* and *my mother* are examples of inalienable possession (at least in some languages), while *my clothes* or *my teacher* would be alienably possessed. What may be considered alienable vs. inalienable may differ by language.
In some languages there is a special form of possession, termed **inalienable possession.** This form of possession is used for things that cannot be removed from you, as opposed to things you could lose. In the examples above, *my head* and *my mother* are examples of inalienable possession (at least in some languages), while *my clothes* or *my teacher* would be alienably possessed. What may be considered alienable vs. inalienable may differ by language.

#### Reasons This Is a Translation Issue

@@ -83,7 +83,6 @@ In the example below, **Christ loves us**.

> John came, baptizing in the wilderness and preaching **a baptism of repentance** for the forgiveness of sins. (Mark 1:4 ULT)


### Strategies for learning what the relationship is between the two nouns

(1) Read the surrounding verses to see if they help you to understand the relationship between the two nouns.


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translate/figs-quotations/01.md View File

@@ -50,4 +50,4 @@ If the kind of quote used in the source text would work well in your language, c
>
> > He commanded him, “**Tell no one**. But go and show yourself to the priest and offer a sacrifice for your cleansing according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them.”

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs\_quotations.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs\_quotations.

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translate/figs-rpronouns/01.md View File

@@ -27,7 +27,6 @@ Reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize a person or thing in the sentence.

> So they left the crowd, taking Jesus with them, just as he was, in the boat. There also were other boats with him. Then a violent windstorm arose and the waves were breaking into the boat so that the boat was already full of water. But **Jesus himself** was in the stern, asleep on the cushion. (Mark 4:36-38a ULT)


Reflexive pronouns are used to show that someone did something alone.

> When Jesus realized that they were about to come and seize him by force to make him king, he withdrew again up the mountain **by himself**. (John 6:15 ULT)
@@ -35,7 +34,6 @@ Reflexive pronouns are used to show that someone did something alone.
Reflexive pronouns are used to show that someone or something was alone.
> He saw the linen cloths lying there and the cloth that had been on his head. **It** was not lying with the linen cloths but was folded up in a place **by itself**. (John 20:6b-7 ULT)


### Translation Strategies

If a reflexive pronoun would have the same function in your language, consider using it. If not, here are some other strategies.


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translate/figs-rquestion/01.md View File

@@ -28,33 +28,26 @@ God used the question above to remind his people of something they already knew:

> Why did I not die when I came out from the womb? (Job 3:11a ULT)


Job used the question above to show deep emotion. This rhetorical question expresses how sad he was that he did not die as soon as he was born. He wished that he had not lived.

> And how has this happened to me that the mother of my Lord would come to me? (Luke 1:43 ULT)


Elizabeth used the question above to show how surprised and happy she was that the mother of her Lord came to her.

> Or what man is there among you, of whom his son will ask for a loaf of bread, but he will give him a stone? (Matthew 7:9 ULT)


Jesus used the question above to remind the people of something they already knew: a good father would never give his son something bad to eat. By introducing this point, Jesus could go on to teach them about God with his next rhetorical question:

> Therefore, if you who are evil know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him? (Matthew 7:11 ULT)


Jesus used this question to teach the people in an emphatic way that God gives good things to those who ask him.

> **What is the kingdom of God like, and what can I compare it to?** It is like a mustard seed that a man took and threw into his garden … (Luke 13:18b-19a ULT)


Jesus used the question above to introduce what he was going to talk about. He was about to compare the kingdom of God to something. In this case, he compared the kingdom of God to a mustard seed.


### Translation Strategies


In order to translate a rhetorical question accurately, first be sure that the question you are translating truly is a rhetorical question and is not an information question. Ask yourself, “Does the person asking the question already know the answer to the question?” If so, it is a rhetorical question. Or, if no one answers the question, did the person who asked it expect to receive an answer? If not, it is a rhetorical question.

When you are sure that the question is rhetorical, then be sure that you understand the purpose for the rhetorical question. Is it to encourage or rebuke or shame the hearer? Is it to bring up a new topic? Is it to do something else?


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translate/figs-sentences/01.md View File

@@ -25,7 +25,6 @@ The predicate is the part of a sentence that tells something about the subject.
* He worked **hard**.
* He made **a garden**.


#### Compound Sentences

A sentence can be made up of more than one sentence. Each of the two lines below has a subject and a predicate and is a full sentence.
@@ -69,7 +68,6 @@ In the sentence below “her mother, who was very annoyed” is part of the pred

* She did not give any maize to **her mother**, **who was very annoyed**.


#### Translation Issues

* Languages have different orders for the parts of a sentence. (See [Information Structure](../figs-infostructure).)


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translate/figs-simetaphor/01.md View File

@@ -34,7 +34,6 @@ The example above has two related metaphors. The Topic(s) are “we” and “yo

Jesus used a metaphor here, but his disciples did not realize it. When he said “yeast,” they thought he was talking about bread, but yeast was the Image in his metaphor, and the Topic was the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. Since the disciples (the original audience) did not understand what Jesus meant, it would not be good to state clearly here what Jesus meant.


### Translation Strategies

* Simple metaphors in the Bible should be translated like active metaphors.


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translate/figs-you/01.md View File

@@ -2,8 +2,7 @@

Some languages have more than one word for “you” based on how many people the word “you” refers to. The **singular** form refers to one person, and the **plural** form refers to more than one person. Some languages also have a **dual** form which refers to two people, and some languages have other forms that refer to three or four people.

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_younum.

You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_younum.

Sometimes in the Bible a speaker uses a singular form of “you” even though he is speaking to a crowd.

@@ -13,7 +12,7 @@ Sometimes in the Bible a speaker uses a singular form of “you” even though h

Some languages have more than one form of “you” based on the relationship between the speaker and the person he is talking to. People use the **formal** form of “you” when speaking to someone who is older, or has higher authority, or is someone they do not know very well. People use the **informal** form when speaking to someone who is not older, or does not have higher authority, or is a family member or close friend.

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_youform.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_youform.

For help with translating these, we suggest you read:



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translate/figs-youdual/01.md View File

@@ -32,4 +32,4 @@ James wrote this letter to many people, so the word “you” refers to many peo
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.
(4) Look at the context to see who the speaker was talking to and who responded.

You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_youdual.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_youdual.

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translate/figs-youformal/01.md View File

@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
(You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_youform.)
(You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_youform.)

### Description



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translate/figs-yousingular/01.md View File

@@ -33,5 +33,4 @@ Paul wrote this letter to one person, Titus. Most of the time the word “you”
(3) If you have a Bible that is written in a language that distinguishes “you” singular from “you” plural, see which form of “you” that Bible has in that sentence.
(4) Look at the context to see how many people the speaker was talking to and who responded.


You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/figs_younum.
You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_younum.

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translate/file-formats/01.md View File

@@ -19,17 +19,16 @@ When a computer program that can read USFM sees this, it is able to format all o

**Bible translations must be in USFM for us to be able to use it!**

To read more about USFM notation, please read http://paratext.org/about/usfm .
To read more about USFM notation, please read https://paratext.org/about/usfm .

#### How To Do a Bible Translation in USFM

Most people do not know how to write in USFM. This is one of the reasons why we created translationStudio (http://ufw.io/ts/). When you do a translation in translationStudio, what you see looks very similar to a normal word processor document without any markup language. However, translationStudio is formatting the Bible translation in USFM underneath what you see. This way, when you upload your translation from translationStudio, what is being uploaded is already formatted in USFM and can be immediately published in a variety of formats.
Most people do not know how to write in USFM. This is one of the reasons why we created translationStudio (https://ufw.io/ts/). When you do a translation in translationStudio, what you see looks very similar to a normal word processor document without any markup language. However, translationStudio is formatting the Bible translation in USFM underneath what you see. This way, when you upload your translation from translationStudio, what is being uploaded is already formatted in USFM and can be immediately published in a variety of formats.

#### Converting a Translation to USFM

Though it is strongly encouraged to only do a translation using USFM notation, sometimes a translation is done without using USFM markup. This type of translation still can be used, but first the USFM markers must be added. One way to do this is to copy and paste it into translationStudio, then place the verse markers in the correct place. When this is done, the translation will be able to be exported as USFM. This is a very arduous task, so we strongly recommend doing your Bible translation work from the beginning in translationStudio or some other program that uses USFM.


### Markdown for Other Content

Markdown is a very common markup language that is used in many places on the Internet. Using Markdown makes it very easy for the same text to be used in a variety of formats (such as webpage, mobile app, PDF, etc).
@@ -46,15 +45,15 @@ Markdown also supports headings like this:

### Heading 3

Markdown also supports links. Links display like this http://www.unfoldingword.org/ and are written like this:
Markdown also supports links. Links display like this https://www.unfoldingword.org/ and are written like this:

http://www.unfoldingword.org
https://www.unfoldingword.org

Customized wording for links is also supported, like this:

[uW Website](http://www.unfoldingword.org)
[uW Website](https://www.unfoldingword.org)

Note that HTML is also valid Markdown. For a complete listing of Markdown syntax, please visit http://ufw.io/md.
Note that HTML is also valid Markdown. For a complete listing of Markdown syntax, please visit https://ufw.io/md.

### Conclusion



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translate/first-draft/01.md View File

@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Follow these steps in order to get started:
1. **Organize.** Talk with the pastors and other believers from your language group and form a committee of people who can oversee the translation work. The Translation Committee finds and oversees the translators, to whom the rest of this list applies.
2. **Contact.** Make contact with at least one person in the unfoldingWord network, notifying unfoldingWord that you intend to begin translation. To obtain information about how to do that, see [Finding Answers](../../intro/finding-answers/01.md)
3. **Review.** Review the [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md).
4. **Agree.** Agree that the Statement of Faith is an accurate reflection of your own beliefs and that you intend to translate the content in harmony with it and also in accordance with the Translation Guidelines. Do this by signing the form that is provided. (see http://ufw.io/forms/)
4. **Agree.** Agree that the Statement of Faith is an accurate reflection of your own beliefs and that you intend to translate the content in harmony with it and also in accordance with the Translation Guidelines. Do this by signing the form that is provided. (see https://ufw.io/forms/)
5. **Pray.** Pray that God would help the translators to understand the passage that you are translating and that he would help you to find the best way to communicate that passage in your language.
6. **Read.**
* If you are translating Open Bible Stories, read each individual story entirely before starting to translate it. If you are translating the Bible, read each entire chapter before you start to translate any part of it. That way you will understand how the part you are translating fits into the larger context, and you will translate it better.


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@@ -10,4 +10,4 @@ Make changes to the translation before you distribute it to a wider audience.

Remember: if possible, work together with other believers who speak your language to translate, check, and distribute the translated content, ensuring that it is of the highest quality and that as many people as possible can read and understand it.

(You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/guidelines_collab.)
(You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/guidelines_collab.)

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translate/guidelines-faithful/01.md View File

@@ -28,6 +28,6 @@ Always translating faithfully can be difficult for several reasons:

* Example: When you are translating Mark 10:11, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against her,” you might know that in Matthew 19:9 there is also the phrase, “… except for sexual immorality ….” Even so, do not add this phrase into Mark 10:11 because that would not be translating faithfully. Also, do not add any of your own ideas or any teachings from your church. Only translate the meaning that is there in the Bible passage.

In order to avoid these biases, especially the ones that you might not be aware of, you must study the unfoldingWord® Translation Notes (see http://ufw.io/tn/), unfoldingWord® Translation Words (see http://ufw.io/tw/) and the *unfoldingWord® Simplified Text* (see http://ufw.io/ust/), as well as any other translation helps that you have. That way you will know what the meaning of the Bible passage is, and you will be less likely to translate in a biased, unfaithful way.
In order to avoid these biases, especially the ones that you might not be aware of, you must study the unfoldingWord® Translation Notes (see https://ufw.io/tn/), unfoldingWord® Translation Words (see https://ufw.io/tw/) and the *unfoldingWord® Simplified Text* (see https://ufw.io/ust/), as well as any other translation helps that you have. That way you will know what the meaning of the Bible passage is, and you will be less likely to translate in a biased, unfaithful way.

(You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/guidelines_faithful.)
(You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/guidelines_faithful.)

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translate/guidelines-historical/01.md View File

@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
(See the video “Translating the Scriptures – Culture” at http://ufw.io/trans_culture.)
(See the video “Translating the Scriptures – Culture” at https://ufw.io/trans_culture.)

A historical translation communicates historical events and facts accurately. It provides additional information as needed to accurately communicate the intended message to people who do not share the context and culture of the original recipients of the original content.



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@@ -6,4 +6,4 @@ Bible translations should be ongoing. Share the translation with others to see i

Remember: encourage people to review the translation and give you ideas for making it better. Talk to other people about these ideas. When several people agree that these are good ideas, then make these changes in the translation. In this way, the translation will get better and better.

(You may also want to watch the video at http://ufw.io/guidelines_ongoing.)
(You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/guidelines_ongoing.)

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translate/guidelines-sonofgodprinciples/01.md View File

@@ -44,4 +44,4 @@ Just as today, human father-son relationships during Bible times were never as l
(2) If your language has more than one word for “son,” use the word that has the closest meaning to “only son” (or “first son” if necessary).
(3) If your language has more than one word for “father,” use the word that has the closest meaning to “birth father,” rather than “adoptive father.”

(See *God the Father* and *Son of God* pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](http://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating “Father” and “Son.”)
(See *God the Father* and *Son of God* pages in [unfoldingWord® Translation Words](https://ufw.io/tw/) for help translating “Father” and “Son.”)

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translate/qualifications/01.md View File

@@ -9,7 +9,6 @@ The leaders of the church networks that will be involved in the translation shou
* Do people respect the way this person speaks their own language?
* What is the age and local language background of each translator? It is usually good to have people from different places in the language area and of different ages, because people of different places and ages might use the language differently. The various translators must agree on how to say things in a way that everyone can understand clearly.


2. Does the person have a very good understanding of the source language?

* What level of education have they received, and how have they obtained skills in the source language?


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translate/resources-def/01.md View File

@@ -13,7 +13,6 @@ Simple definitions of words or phrases are added without quotes or sentence form

> Behold, those in expensive clothing and living in luxury are in **kings’ palaces.** (Luke 7:25b ULT)


* **kings’ palaces** – the large, expensive houses that kings live in

### Translation Principles


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translate/resources-links/01.md View File

@@ -30,6 +30,6 @@ These links will only take you back to Notes in the same book that you are worki

#### Examples

* **be fruitful and multiply** – See how you translated these commands in [Genesis 1:28](http://).
* **everything that creeps along the ground** – This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in [Genesis 1:25](http://).
* **will be blessed in him** – Alternate Translation: “will be blessed because of Abraham” or “will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham.” For translating “in him,” see how you translated “through you” in [Genesis 12:3](http://).
* **be fruitful and multiply** – See how you translated these commands in [Genesis 1:28](https://).
* **everything that creeps along the ground** – This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in [Genesis 1:25](https://).
* **will be blessed in him** – Alternate Translation: “will be blessed because of Abraham” or “will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham.” For translating “in him,” see how you translated “through you” in [Genesis 12:3](https://).

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@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ The metric values in the table below are close but not exactly equal to the bibl
| “long” cubit | 54 centimeters |
| stadia | 185 meters |


#### Translation Principles

1. The people in the Bible did not use modern measures such as meters, liters, and kilograms. Using the original measures can help readers know that the Bible really was written long ago in a time when people used those measures.


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@@ -10,7 +10,6 @@ The two tables below show some of the most well-known units of money found in th
| shekel | various metals | 11 grams |
| talent | various metals | 33 kilograms|


| Unit in NT | Metal | Day’s Wage |
| -------- | -------- | -------- |
| denarius/denarii | silver coin | 1 day |


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@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ In some versions this is the last verse of Daniel 5. In other versions this is t

### Translation Strategies

If the people who speak your language have another Bible that they use, number the chapters and verses the way that Bible does. Read the instructions on how to mark verses in [translationStudio](http://help.door43.org/en/knowledgebase/13-translationstudio-android/docs/24-marking-verses-in-translationstudio).
If the people who speak your language have another Bible that they use, number the chapters and verses the way that Bible does. Read the instructions on how to mark verses in [translationStudio](https://help.door43.org/en/knowledgebase/13-translationstudio-android/docs/24-marking-verses-in-translationstudio).

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied



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translate/translate-formatsignals/01.md View File

@@ -14,7 +14,6 @@ In Mark 11:31-33, the ellipsis mark shows that either the religious leaders did

> They discussed between themselves, saying, “What should we say? If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why then did you not believe him?’ But if we say, ‘From men,’ **…**” They were afraid of the people, for everyone considered that John really was a prophet. Then they answered Jesus and said, “We do not know.” Then Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.” (ULT)


#### Long Dashes

Long dashes (—) introduce information that is immediately relevant to what came before it. For example:
@@ -33,7 +32,6 @@ The words in the parentheses below are not what Jesus was saying, but what Matth

> “Therefore, when you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place” **(**let the reader understand**)**, “then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let him who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of his house, and let him who is in the field not return to take his cloak.” (Matthew 24:15-18 ULT)


#### Indentation

When text is indented, it means that the line of text starts further to the right than the lines of text above and below it that are not indented.


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translate/translate-fraction/01.md View File

@@ -30,8 +30,6 @@ The tribe of Manasseh divided into two groups. The phrase “the half-tribe of M

> So the four angels who had been prepared for that hour, that day, that month, and that year, were released so that they would kill **a third** of mankind. (Revelation 9:15 ULT)



If all the people in the world were to be divided into three equal groups, then the number of people in one group would be killed.

> You must also prepare **a fourth** of a hin of wine as the drink offering. (Numbers 15:5 ULT)


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@@ -43,7 +43,6 @@ This is a list of the Hebrew months with information about them that may be help

> You must eat unleavened bread from evening of the fourteenth day **in the first month of the year**, until evening of the twenty-first day of the month. (Exodus 12:18 ULT)


### Translation Strategies

You may need to make some information about the months explicit. (See [Assumed Knowledge and Implicit Information](../figs-explicit/01.md).)


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translate/translate-help/01.md View File

@@ -2,11 +2,11 @@

To help translators make the best translation possible, **unfoldingWord® Translation Notes**, **unfoldingWord® Translation Words**, and **unfoldingWord® Translation Questions** have been created.

**unfoldingWord® Translation Notes** are cultural, linguistic, and exegetical notes that help to describe and explain some of the Bible background that the translator needs to know to translate accurately. The unfoldingWord® Translation Notes also inform translators about different ways that they might express the same meaning. See http://ufw.io/tn/.
**unfoldingWord® Translation Notes** are cultural, linguistic, and exegetical notes that help to describe and explain some of the Bible background that the translator needs to know to translate accurately. The unfoldingWord® Translation Notes also inform translators about different ways that they might express the same meaning. See https://ufw.io/tn/.

The **unfoldingWord® Translation Words** are key terms found in Open Bible Stories and the Bible. It is very important to translate key terms correctly. Each of these words or phrases has a small article written about it as well as cross-references to other places where that term is used in either Open Bible Stories or the Bible. This is to show the translator other ways that the unfoldingWord® Translation Words term is used and to ensure that it has been translated correctly in those places, too. See http://ufw.io/tw/.
The **unfoldingWord® Translation Words** are key terms found in Open Bible Stories and the Bible. It is very important to translate key terms correctly. Each of these words or phrases has a small article written about it as well as cross-references to other places where that term is used in either Open Bible Stories or the Bible. This is to show the translator other ways that the unfoldingWord® Translation Words term is used and to ensure that it has been translated correctly in those places, too. See https://ufw.io/tw/.

The **unfoldingWord® Translation Questions** are comprehension questions that can be used to self-check your translation. If you can correctly answer the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions using only the Target Language translation, then it is an accurate translation. The unfoldingWord® Translation Questions are also a good tool to use for checking with the target language community. See http://ufw.io/tq/.
The **unfoldingWord® Translation Questions** are comprehension questions that can be used to self-check your translation. If you can correctly answer the unfoldingWord® Translation Questions using only the Target Language translation, then it is an accurate translation. The unfoldingWord® Translation Questions are also a good tool to use for checking with the target language community. See https://ufw.io/tq/.

Once you have consulted the unfoldingWord® Translation Notes, unfoldingWord® Translation Words and unfoldingWord® Translation Questions, then you are ready to make the best translation.



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@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ Sometimes terms that seem like kinship terms are used for people who are not nec

Abel was Cain’s younger brother.

> Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock and said to them, “I see **your father’s** attitude toward me has changed, but the God of my father has been with me.” (Genesis 31:4-5 ULT)
> Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock and said to them, “I see **your father’s** attitude toward me has changed, but the God of my father has been with me.” (Genesis 31:4-5 ULT)

Jacob is referring here to his father-in-law. In some languages there may be a specific term for a man’s father-in-law, however, in this case it is better to retain the form **your father** as Jacob may be using it to distance himself from Laban.

@@ -29,15 +29,15 @@ From context we know that this was Miriam, Moses’s older sister. In some langu

Ruth & Orpah are Naomi’s daughters-in-law.

> Then she said, “Look, your sister-in-law has turned back to her people and to her gods. (Ruth 1:15 ULT)
> Then she said, “Look, your sister-in-law has turned back to her people and to her gods. (Ruth 1:15 ULT)

Orpah had been the wife of Ruth’s husband’s brother. This may be a different term in your language than if she had been Ruth’s husband’s sister.

> Then Boaz said to Ruth, “Will you not listen to me, **my daughter**? (Ruth 2:8a ULT)
> Then Boaz said to Ruth, “Will you not listen to me, **my daughter**? (Ruth 2:8a ULT)

Boaz is not Ruth’s father; he is simply using the term to address a younger woman.

> And behold, **your relative** Elizabeth—she also has conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren. (Luke 1:36 ULT)
> And behold, **your relative** Elizabeth—she also has conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren. (Luke 1:36 ULT)

While the KJV translated this as **cousin**, the term simply means a related woman.

@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ While the KJV translated this as **cousin**, the term simply means a related wom

### Translation Strategies Applied

This is not an issue in English, so the following illustrations draw on other languages.
This is not an issue in English, so the following illustrations draw on other languages.

In Korean, there are several terms for brother and sister, the use of them depends on the speaker’s (or referent’s) sex and birth order. Examples are from the Korean Living Bible, found on biblegateway.com

@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ In Korean, there are several terms for brother and sister, the use of them depen
>
> Genesis 45:12 Joseph refers to Benjamin as “dongsaeng,” which roughly means sibling, usually younger.

In Russian, in-law terms are complex. For instance, “nevéstka” is the term for a brother’s (or brother-in-law’s) wife; a woman uses the same term for her daughter-in-law but her husband would call the same daughter-in-law “snoxá.”
In Russian, in-law terms are complex. For instance, “nevéstka” is the term for a brother’s (or brother-in-law’s) wife; a woman uses the same term for her daughter-in-law but her husband would call the same daughter-in-law “snoxá.”
Examples from the Russian Synodal Version.

> Genesis 38:25 Tamar sends a message to her father-in-law, Judah. The term used is “svekor.” This is used for a woman’s husband’s father.


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This manual teaches translation theory and how to make a good translation for Other Languages (OLs). Some of the principles of translation in this manual also apply to Gateway Language translation. For specific instruction on how to translate the set of translation tools for Gateway Languages, however, please see the [Gateway Language Manual](https://gl-manual.readthedocs.io/). It will be very helpful to study many of these modules before starting any type of translation project. Other modules, such as the ones about grammar, are only needed for “just-in-time” learning.


Some highlights in the Translation Manual:

* [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../guidelines-intro/01.md) – defining a good translation


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> I have prepared for Yahweh’s house **a great amount of gold (100,000 talents)**, **ten times that amount of silver (1,000,000 talents)**, and bronze and iron in large quantities.


#### Consistency

Be consistent in your translations. Decide how the numbers will be translated, using numbers or numerals. There are different ways of being consistent.


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| 100 | one hundred | one hundredth |
| 1,000| one thousand | one thousandth |


Some ordinal numbers in English do not follow that pattern.

| Numeral | Number | Ordinal Number |


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### What License Do We Use?

Content created by unfoldingWord® is released under a **Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License (CC BY-SA)** (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). We believe this license is the greatest help to the church because it is permissive enough to allow translation and other derivatives to be made from it, but not so permissive that those derivatives can be locked up under restrictive licenses. For a complete discussion on this issue, read The Christian Commons (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/tcc/) or Letting Go (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/letting-go).
Content created by unfoldingWord® is released under a **Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License (CC BY-SA)** (see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/). We believe this license is the greatest help to the church because it is permissive enough to allow translation and other derivatives to be made from it, but not so permissive that those derivatives can be locked up under restrictive licenses. For a complete discussion on this issue, read The Christian Commons (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/tcc/) or Letting Go (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/letting-go).

### What Source Texts Can Be Used?

Source texts can be used if they are in the public domain or are available under one of the following licenses, which permit translated work to be released under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License:

* **CC0 Public Domain Dedication (CC0)** (see http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)
* **CC Attribution (CC BY)** (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
* **CC Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)** (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/)
* **CC0 Public Domain Dedication (CC0)** (see https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/)
* **CC Attribution (CC BY)** (see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
* **CC Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)** (see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/)
* Works released under the **Free Translate License** (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/freetranslate/)

For all other works in question, please contact <help@door43.org> .


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@@ -10,4 +10,4 @@ When choosing a source text, there are a number of factors that must be consider
* **[The Original and Source Languages](../translate-original/01.md)** – Does the translation team understand the difference between source languages and original languages?
* **[Original Manuscripts](../translate-manuscripts/01.md)** – Does the translation team understand about Original Manuscripts and [Textual Variants](../translate-textvariants/01.md)?

It is important that the leaders of the churches in the language group agree that the source text is a good one. The Open Bible Stories are available in many source languages on http://ufw.io/stories/. There are also translations of the Bible there to be used as sources for translation in English, and soon, Other Languages, as well.
It is important that the leaders of the churches in the language group agree that the source text is a good one. The Open Bible Stories are available in many source languages on https://ufw.io/stories/. There are also translations of the Bible there to be used as sources for translation in English, and soon, Other Languages, as well.

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Each source text is given a whole number for each release (version 1, 2, 3, etc). Any translations based on that source text will take the version number of the source text and add .1 (thus, a translation from English OBS version 4 would become version 4.1). Any further translation based on the intermediate translation would add another .1 to the version number it was created from (for example 4.1.1). New releases of any of these texts increment their “decimal place” by 1.

Please see http://ufw.io/versioning for more details.
Please see https://ufw.io/versioning for more details.

### Where to Find the Latest Version

The latest published versions of resources in the Door43 Catalog may be seen online at https://door43.org/en/?user=Door43-Catalog. The unfoldingWord® English source content is also available in various formats from http://www.unfoldingword.org/content/.
The latest published versions of resources in the Door43 Catalog may be seen online at https://door43.org/en/?user=Door43-Catalog. The unfoldingWord® English source content is also available in various formats from https://www.unfoldingword.org/content/.

**Note:** translationCore, translationStudio and the unfoldingWord® app do not always have the latest versions since updating content does not happen automatically (you may use the source content update feature in each of these apps to get the latest versions).

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(2) You can spell the word as the Other Language spells it, and pronounce it the way your language normally pronounces those letters.
(3) You can pronounce the word similarly to the way the Other Language does, and adjust the spelling to fit the rules of your language.


### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied

(1) If your language uses a different script from the language you are translating from, you can simply substitute each letter shape with the corresponding letter shape of the script of your language.


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Jackals are wild animals like dogs that live in only a few parts of the world. So they are not known in many places.


> Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravenous **wolves**. (Matthew 7:15 ULT)

If wolves do not live where the translation will be read, the readers may not understand that they are fierce, wild animals like dogs that attack and eat sheep.


> They offered him wine mixed with **myrrh**, but he did not drink it. (Mark 15:23 ULT)

People may not know what myrrh is and that it was used as a medicine.


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(1) If you put information from one verse before information from an earlier verse, then combine the verses and put a hyphen between the two verse numbers.


See how to mark verses in [translationStudio](http://help.door43.org/en/knowledgebase/13-translationstudio-android/docs/24-marking-verses-in-translationstudio).
See how to mark verses in [translationStudio](https://help.door43.org/en/knowledgebase/13-translationstudio-android/docs/24-marking-verses-in-translationstudio).

### Examples of Translation Strategies Applied



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> And Mary said, “My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit rejoiced in God my savior.” **And Mary stayed with her about three months and then returned to her house.** (Luke 1:46-47, 56 ULT)


* To tell on-going action that continues after the main part of the story ends

> All who those who heard it were amazed concerning the things that were spoken to them by the shepherds. **But Mary kept all the things, pondering them in her heart.** (Luke 2:18-19 ULT)


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> For look, days are coming—**this is Yahweh’s declaration**—when I will restore the fortunes of my people, Israel and Judah. (Jeremiah 30:3a ULT)


### Translation Strategies

(1) Decide where to put the quote margin.


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