Browse Source

Fix unusual use of en-dash to em-dash (#519)

en-dash is usually used in ranges (without surrounding spaces) -- see https://www.grammarly.com/blog/en-dash/

Co-authored-by: Robert Hunt <Freely.Given.org@gmail.com>
Reviewed-on: https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/pulls/519
Co-authored-by: Robert Hunt <robh@noreply.door43.org>
Co-committed-by: Robert Hunt <robh@noreply.door43.org>
tags/v23
Robert Hunt 8 months ago
parent
commit
fb91d4b8bb
94 changed files with 367 additions and 367 deletions
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@@ -20,9 +20,9 @@ UTA is written in a simple Markdown format and organized according to the [Resou

Each manual has its own directory in this repository (for example, the Checking Manual is in the [checking](https://git.door43.org/unfoldingWord/en_ta/src/branch/master/checking) directory). Each module has its own directory inside of these manual directories. Inside each of these are three files:

* `01.md` This is the main body of the module
* `sub-title.md` This file contains the question that the module is intended to answer.
* `title.md` This contains the title of the module
* `01.md` This is the main body of the module
* `sub-title.md` This file contains the question that the module is intended to answer.
* `title.md` This contains the title of the module

There are also YAML formatted files in each manual’s directory. The `toc.yaml` file is for encoding the Table of Contents and the `config.yaml` file is for encoding dependencies between the modules.



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@@ -6,11 +6,11 @@ The objective of this module is to describe a process by which the Church can re

This assessment method employs two types of statements. Some are “yes/no” statements, where a negative response indicates a problem that must be resolved. Other sections use an equally-weighted method that provides translation teams and checkers with statements about the translation. Each statement should be scored by the person doing the check (beginning with the translation team) on a scale of 0-2:

**0** disagree
**0** disagree

**1** agree somewhat
**1** agree somewhat

**2** strongly agree
**2** strongly agree

At the end of the review, the total value of all responses in a section should be added up. If the responses accurately reflect the state of the translation, this value will provide the reviewer with an approximation of the probability that the translated chapter is of excellent quality. This assessment method is designed to be simple and provide the reviewer with an objective way to determine where the work needs improvement. **For example, if the translation scores relatively well in “Accuracy” but quite poorly in “Naturalness” and “Clarity,” then the translation team needs to do more community checking.**



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@@ -2,9 +2,9 @@ It is important that your target language translation include all of the verses

### Reasons for Missing Verses

1. **Textual Variants** There are some verses that many Bible scholars do not believe were original to the Bible, but were added later. Therefore, the translators of some Bibles chose not to include those verses, or chose to include them only as footnotes. (For more information about this, see [Textual Variants](../../translate/translate-textvariants/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide whether you will include these verses or not.
1. **Different Numbering** Some Bibles use a different system of verse numbering than other Bibles. (For more information about this, see [Chapter and Verse Numbers](../../translate/translate-chapverse/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide which system to use.
1. **Verse Bridges** In some translations of the Bible, the contents of two or more verses are rearranged so that the order of information is more logical or easier to understand. When that happens, the verse numbers are combined, such as 4-5 or 4-6. The UST does this sometimes. Because not all of the verse numbers appear (or they do not appear where you expect them to be), it might look like some verses are missing. But the contents of those verses are there. (For more information about this, see [Verse Bridges](../../translate/translate-versebridge/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide whether to use verse bridges or not.
1. **Textual Variants** There are some verses that many Bible scholars do not believe were original to the Bible, but were added later. Therefore, the translators of some Bibles chose not to include those verses, or chose to include them only as footnotes. (For more information about this, see [Textual Variants](../../translate/translate-textvariants/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide whether you will include these verses or not.
1. **Different Numbering** Some Bibles use a different system of verse numbering than other Bibles. (For more information about this, see [Chapter and Verse Numbers](../../translate/translate-chapverse/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide which system to use.
1. **Verse Bridges** In some translations of the Bible, the contents of two or more verses are rearranged so that the order of information is more logical or easier to understand. When that happens, the verse numbers are combined, such as 4-5 or 4-6. The UST does this sometimes. Because not all of the verse numbers appear (or they do not appear where you expect them to be), it might look like some verses are missing. But the contents of those verses are there. (For more information about this, see [Verse Bridges](../../translate/translate-versebridge/01.md).) Your translation team will need to decide whether to use verse bridges or not.

### Checking for Missing Verses



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@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ These are things to check as you look at a passage of Scripture to check it for
1. Check for any meaning that appears to be different than the meaning of the source text.

1. Check to make sure that the main point or the theme of the passage is clear. Ask the translation team to summarize what the passage is saying or teaching. If they choose a minor point as the primary one, they might need to adjust the way that they translated the passage.
1. Check that the different parts of the passage are connected in the right way that the reasons, additions, results, conclusions, etc. in the Bible passage are marked with the proper connectors in the target language.
1. Check that the different parts of the passage are connected in the right way that the reasons, additions, results, conclusions, etc. in the Bible passage are marked with the proper connectors in the target language.
1. Check for the consistency of the unfoldingWord® Translation Words, as explained in the last section of [Steps for Quality Checking](../vol2-steps/01.md). Ask how each term is used in the culture, who uses the terms, and on what occasions. Also ask what other terms are similar and what the differences are between the similar terms. This helps the translator (or translation team) to see if some terms might have unwanted meanings, and to see which term might be better. The translation might need to use different terms in different contexts.
1. Check figures of speech. Where there is a figure of speech in the ULT, see how it has been translated and make sure it communicates the same meaning. Where there is a figure of speech in the translation, check to make sure it communicates the same meaning as in the GL Bible text.
1. Check to see how abstract ideas were translated, such as love, forgiveness, joy, etc. Many of these are also Key Words.


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There are several resources available for finding answers to questions:

* **unfoldingWord® Translation Academy** This training manual is available at https://ufw.io/ta and has much information including:
* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) explains the basics of translation theory and provides practical translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) explains the basics of checking theory and best practices
* **Door43 Slack** Join the Door43 community, post your questions to the “#helpdesk” channel, and get real-time answers to your questions (sign up at https://ufw.io/door43)
* **Door43 Forum** A place to ask questions and get answers to technical, strategic, translation, and checking issues, https://forum.door43.org/
* **Helpdesk** email <help@door43.org> with your questions
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Academy** This training manual is available at https://ufw.io/ta and has much information including:
* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) explains the basics of translation theory and provides practical translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) explains the basics of checking theory and best practices
* **Door43 Slack** Join the Door43 community, post your questions to the “#helpdesk” channel, and get real-time answers to your questions (sign up at https://ufw.io/door43)
* **Door43 Forum** A place to ask questions and get answers to technical, strategic, translation, and checking issues, https://forum.door43.org/
* **Helpdesk** email <help@door43.org> with your questions

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@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ unfoldingWord® Translation Academy is designed to be highly flexible. It is mod

unfoldingWord® Translation Academy is organized into the following sections:

* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) explains the basics of translation theory and offers practical Bible translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) explains the basics of checking theory and best practices for checking translations
* [Introduction](../ta-intro/01.md) introduces this resource, the Gateway Languages strategy, and translation
* [Process Manual](../../process/process-manual/01.md) answers the question “what next?”
* [Translation Manual](../../translate/translate-manual/01.md) explains the basics of translation theory and offers practical Bible translation helps
* [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-check/01.md) explains the basics of checking theory and best practices for checking translations

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@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ The quality of a translation generally refers to the fidelity of the translation
The specific steps involved may vary significantly, depending on the language and context of the translation project. Generally, we consider a good translation to be one that has been reviewed by the speakers of the language community and also by the leadership of the church in the language group so that it is:

1. **Accurate, Clear, Natural, and Equal** — Faithful to the intended meaning of the original, as determined by the Church in that people group and in alignment with the Church global and historical, and consequently:
1. **Affirmed by the Church** Endorsed and used by the Church. (see [Create Church-Approved Translations](../../translate/guidelines-church-approved/01.md))
1. **Affirmed by the Church** Endorsed and used by the Church. (see [Create Church-Approved Translations](../../translate/guidelines-church-approved/01.md))

We also recommend that the translation work be:



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@@ -16,11 +16,11 @@ Understanding the Word of God in one’s heart language is important:

How do we accomplish the goal of **the church in every people group and the Bible in every language**?

* [Church-Centric Bible Translation](https://www.ccbt.bible/) By working with other like-minded churches and organizations
* [Statement of Faith](../statement-of-faith/01.md) By working with those who have the same beliefs
* [Translation Guidelines](../translation-guidelines/01.md) By using a common translation theory
* [Open License](../open-license/01.md) By releasing everything we create under an open license
* [Gateway Languages Strategy](../gl-strategy/01.md) By making biblical content available to translate from a known language
* [Church-Centric Bible Translation](https://www.ccbt.bible/) By working with other like-minded churches and organizations
* [Statement of Faith](../statement-of-faith/01.md) By working with those who have the same beliefs
* [Translation Guidelines](../translation-guidelines/01.md) By using a common translation theory
* [Open License](../open-license/01.md) By releasing everything we create under an open license
* [Gateway Languages Strategy](../gl-strategy/01.md) By making biblical content available to translate from a known language

### What Do We Do?

@@ -28,21 +28,21 @@ How do we accomplish the goal of **the church in every people group and the Bibl

We create and make available for translation free and unrestricted biblical content. See https://www.unfoldingword.org/content for a complete list of resources and translations. Here are a few samples:

* **unfoldingWord® Open Bible Stories** unrestricted visual Bible stories comprising 50 key stories of the Bible, from Creation to Revelation, for evangelism and discipleship, in print, audio, and video (see https://www.openbiblestories.org/).
* **unfoldingWord® Literal Text** a ‘form-centric’ translation of the Bible *for translators*. It increases the translator’s understanding of the lexical and grammatical composition of the underlying text by adhering closely to the word order and structure of the originals (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/ult).
* **unfoldingWord® Simplified Text** a ‘functional’ translation of the Bible *for translators*. It increases the translator’s understanding of the text by simplifying grammar, adding implied information, and translating theological terms as descriptive phrases (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/ust).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Notes** linguistic, cultural, and exegetical helps for translators. They exist for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Questions** questions for each chunk of text that translators and checkers can ask to help ensure that their translation is understood correctly. Available for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utq).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Words** a list of important biblical terms with a short explanation, cross references, and translation aids. Useful for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utw).
* **unfoldingWord® Open Bible Stories** unrestricted visual Bible stories comprising 50 key stories of the Bible, from Creation to Revelation, for evangelism and discipleship, in print, audio, and video (see https://www.openbiblestories.org/).
* **unfoldingWord® Literal Text** a ‘form-centric’ translation of the Bible *for translators*. It increases the translator’s understanding of the lexical and grammatical composition of the underlying text by adhering closely to the word order and structure of the originals (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/ult).
* **unfoldingWord® Simplified Text** a ‘functional’ translation of the Bible *for translators*. It increases the translator’s understanding of the text by simplifying grammar, adding implied information, and translating theological terms as descriptive phrases (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/ust).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Notes** linguistic, cultural, and exegetical helps for translators. They exist for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utn).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Questions** questions for each chunk of text that translators and checkers can ask to help ensure that their translation is understood correctly. Available for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utq).
* **unfoldingWord® Translation Words** a list of important biblical terms with a short explanation, cross references, and translation aids. Useful for Open Bible Stories and the Bible (see https://www.unfoldingword.org/utw).

#### Tools

We create translation, checking, and distribution tools that are free and open-licensed. See https://www.unfoldingword.org/tools for a complete list of tools. Here are a few samples:

* **Door43** an online translation platform where people can collaborate on translation and checking, also the content and translation management system (see https://door43.org/).
* **translationStudio** a mobile app and a desktop app where translators can do offline translating (see https://ufw.io/ts/).
* **unfoldingWord app** a mobile app where Open Bible Stories and Bible translations can be distributed (see https://ufw.io/uw/).
* **translationCore** a program that enables comprehensive checking of Bible translations (see https://translationcore.com).
* **Door43** an online translation platform where people can collaborate on translation and checking, also the content and translation management system (see https://door43.org/).
* **translationStudio** a mobile app and a desktop app where translators can do offline translating (see https://ufw.io/ts/).
* **unfoldingWord app** a mobile app where Open Bible Stories and Bible translations can be distributed (see https://ufw.io/uw/).
* **translationCore** a program that enables comprehensive checking of Bible translations (see https://translationcore.com).

#### Training



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@@ -4,5 +4,5 @@ It is recommended that you consult the [Checking Manual](../../checking/intro-ch

Some information that the translation team should know before you start checking:

* [Goal of Checking](../../checking/goal-checking/01.md) What is the purpose of checking?
* [Introduction to Translation Checking](../../checking/intro-checking/01.md) Why do we need a team to check the translation?
* [Goal of Checking](../../checking/goal-checking/01.md) What is the purpose of checking?
* [Introduction to Translation Checking](../../checking/intro-checking/01.md) Why do we need a team to check the translation?

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@@ -4,16 +4,16 @@ It is recommended that you consult the [Translation Manual](../../translate/tran

Some important subjects that everyone on the translation team must learn before starting a translation project include:

* [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../../translate/guidelines-intro/01.md) The definition of a good translation
* [The Translation Process](../../translate/translate-process/01.md) How a good translation is made
* [Form and Meaning](../../translate/translate-fandm/01.md) The difference between form and meaning
* [Meaning-Based Translations](../../translate/translate-dynamic/01.md) How to make a meaning-based translation
* [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../../translate/guidelines-intro/01.md) The definition of a good translation
* [The Translation Process](../../translate/translate-process/01.md) How a good translation is made
* [Form and Meaning](../../translate/translate-fandm/01.md) The difference between form and meaning
* [Meaning-Based Translations](../../translate/translate-dynamic/01.md) How to make a meaning-based translation

Some other important topics as you get started also include:

* [Choose a Translation Style](../../translate/choose-style/01.md) Important decisions that must be made that will guide the translation process
* [Choosing What to Translate](../../translate/translation-difficulty/01.md) Suggestions for where to start translating
* [First Draft](../../translate/first-draft/01.md) How to make a first draft
* [Help with Translating](../../translate/translate-help/01.md) Using translation helps
* [Choose a Translation Style](../../translate/choose-style/01.md) Important decisions that must be made that will guide the translation process
* [Choosing What to Translate](../../translate/translation-difficulty/01.md) Suggestions for where to start translating
* [First Draft](../../translate/first-draft/01.md) How to make a first draft
* [Help with Translating](../../translate/translate-help/01.md) Using translation helps

When you have [Set Up a Translation Team](../setup-team/01.md) and want to make a [First Draft](../../translate/first-draft/01.md) of your translation, use [translationStudio](../setup-ts/01.md). We recommend that you follow this [Translation Process](../translation-overview/01.md).

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As you begin selecting a translation and checking team, there are many different types of people and roles that are needed. There are also specific qualifications that are needed for each team.

* [Choosing a Translation Team](../../translate/choose-team/01.md) Describes many of the roles that are needed
* [Translator Qualifications](../../translate/qualifications/01.md) Describes some of the skills needed by the translators
* [Choosing a Translation Team](../../translate/choose-team/01.md) Describes many of the roles that are needed
* [Translator Qualifications](../../translate/qualifications/01.md) Describes some of the skills needed by the translators
* Remember that everyone on the team needs to sign a statement that they agree with (forms are available at https://ufw.io/forms)
* [Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md)
* [Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md)
@@ -15,13 +15,13 @@ As you begin selecting a translation and checking team, there are many different

There are many decisions the translation team will need to make, many of them right at the beginning of the project. Included are the following:

* [Choosing a Source Text](../../translate/translate-source-text/01.md) Choosing a good source text is very important
* [Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../../translate/translate-source-licensing/01.md) Copyright issues must be considered when choosing a source text
* [Source Texts and Version Numbers](../../translate/translate-source-version/01.md) Translating from the latest version of a source text is best
* [Alphabet/Orthography](../../translate/translate-alphabet/01.md) Many languages have alphabet decisions that need to be made
* [Decisions for Writing Your Language](../../translate/writing-decisions/01.md) Writing style, punctuation, translating names, spelling, and other decisions have to be made
* [Translation Style](../../translate/choose-style/01.md) The translation committee needs to agree on the style of the translation in the sense of how much they want it to imitate the form of the source, how much borrowing of words is allowed, and other topics. See also this section on making the translation [Acceptable](../../checking/acceptable/01.md).
* [Choosing What to Translate](../../translate/translation-difficulty/01.md) Books should be chosen based on the needs of the church and the difficulty of translation
* [Choosing a Source Text](../../translate/translate-source-text/01.md) Choosing a good source text is very important
* [Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../../translate/translate-source-licensing/01.md) Copyright issues must be considered when choosing a source text
* [Source Texts and Version Numbers](../../translate/translate-source-version/01.md) Translating from the latest version of a source text is best
* [Alphabet/Orthography](../../translate/translate-alphabet/01.md) Many languages have alphabet decisions that need to be made
* [Decisions for Writing Your Language](../../translate/writing-decisions/01.md) Writing style, punctuation, translating names, spelling, and other decisions have to be made
* [Translation Style](../../translate/choose-style/01.md) The translation committee needs to agree on the style of the translation in the sense of how much they want it to imitate the form of the source, how much borrowing of words is allowed, and other topics. See also this section on making the translation [Acceptable](../../checking/acceptable/01.md).
* [Choosing What to Translate](../../translate/translation-difficulty/01.md) Books should be chosen based on the needs of the church and the difficulty of translation

After the translation committee makes these decisions, it is good to write them down in a document that everyone involved in the translation can read. This will help everyone to make similar translation decisions and will avoid further arguments about these things.



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The term “biblical imagery” refers in a general way to any kind of language in which an image is paired with an idea such that the image represents the idea. This general definition is applied most directly to [metaphors](../figs-metaphor/01.md) but can also include [similes](../figs-simile/01.md), [metonymies](../figs-metonymy/01.md), and cultural models.

We have included several modules about biblical imagery in order to tell about the various patterns of imagery found in the Bible. The patterns of pairings found in the Bible are often unique to the Hebrew and Greek languages. It is useful to recognize these patterns because they repeatedly present translators with the same problems regarding how to translate them. Once translators think through how they will handle these translation challenges, they will be ready to meet them anywhere they see the same patterns. See [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) for links to pages showing common patterns of pairings between ideas in similes and metaphors.
We have included several modules about biblical imagery in order to tell about the various patterns of imagery found in the Bible. The patterns of pairings found in the Bible are often unique to the Hebrew and Greek languages. It is useful to recognize these patterns because they repeatedly present translators with the same problems regarding how to translate them. Once translators think through how they will handle these translation challenges, they will be ready to meet them anywhere they see the same patterns. See [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) for links to pages showing common patterns of pairings between ideas in similes and metaphors.

### Common Types of Biblical Imagery

A **simile** is an explicit figure of speech that compares two items using one of the specific terms “like,” “as,” or “than.”

A **metonymy** is an implicit figure of speech that refers to an item (either physical or abstract) not by its own name, but by the name of something closely related to it. See [Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md) for a list of some common metonymies in the Bible.
A **metonymy** is an implicit figure of speech that refers to an item (either physical or abstract) not by its own name, but by the name of something closely related to it. See [Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md) for a list of some common metonymies in the Bible.

A **metaphor** is a figure of speech which uses a physical image to refer to an abstract idea, either explicitly or implicitly. In our translation helps, we distinguish between three different types of metaphors: [simple metaphors](../figs-simetaphor/01.md), [extended metaphors](../figs-exmetaphor/01.md), and [complex metaphors](../figs-cometaphor/01.md).

@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ An **extended metaphor** is an explicit metaphor that uses multiple images and m

A **complex metaphor** is an implicit metaphor that uses multiple images and multiple ideas at the same time. Complex metaphors are very similar to extended metaphors, except that they are implied by the text rather than explicitly stated. Because of this, complex metaphors can be very difficult to identify in the Bible. For example, in Ephesians 6:10-20 the apostle Paul describes how a Christian should prepare to resist temptation by comparing abstract ideas to pieces of armor worn by a soldier. The term “full armor of God” is not a combination of several simple metaphors (where the belt represents truth, the helmet represents salvation, etc.). Rather, the unstated complex metaphor PREPARATION IS GETTING DRESSED underlies the entire description as a whole. The apostle Paul was using the physical Image of a soldier putting on his armor (that is, “GETTING DRESSED”) to refer to the abstract Idea (that is, “PREPARATION”) of a Christian preparing himself to resist temptation.

In our translation helps, we use the term **cultural model** to refer to either an extended metaphor or a complex metaphor that is widely used within a specific culture but which may or may not be used within a different culture. See [Biblical Imagery Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md) for a list of some cultural models found in the Bible.
In our translation helps, we use the term **cultural model** to refer to either an extended metaphor or a complex metaphor that is widely used within a specific culture but which may or may not be used within a different culture. See [Biblical Imagery Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md) for a list of some cultural models found in the Bible.

### Cultural Models



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Biblical Imagery Animals
Biblical Imagery Animals

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Biblical Imagery Farming
Biblical Imagery Farming

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### Translation Strategies

See the Translations Strategies on [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).
See the Translations Strategies on [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).

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Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities
Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities

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Biblical Imagery Human Behavior
Biblical Imagery Human Behavior

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Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects
Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects

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This page discusses ideas that are paired together in limited ways. (For a discussion of more complex pairings, see [Biblical Imagery Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)
This page discusses ideas that are paired together in limited ways. (For a discussion of more complex pairings, see [Biblical Imagery Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)

### Description

@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ This pattern is also seen in Psalm 119:32 where running in the path of God’s c

These patterns present three challenges to anyone who wants to identify them:

(1) When looking at particular metaphors in the Bible, it is not always obvious what two ideas are paired with each other. For example, it may not be immediately obvious that the expression, “It is God who puts strength on me like a belt” (Psalm 18:32 ULT) is based on the pairing of CLOTHING with moral quality. In this case, the image of a BELT represents strength. (See “CLOTHING represents a moral quality” in [Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects](../bita-manmade/01.md) as well as the module about [complex metaphors](../figs-cometaphor/01.md).)
(1) When looking at particular metaphors in the Bible, it is not always obvious what two ideas are paired with each other. For example, it may not be immediately obvious that the expression, “It is God who puts strength on me like a belt” (Psalm 18:32 ULT) is based on the pairing of CLOTHING with moral quality. In this case, the image of a BELT represents strength. (See “CLOTHING represents a moral quality” in [Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects](../bita-manmade/01.md) as well as the module about [complex metaphors](../figs-cometaphor/01.md).)

(2) When looking at a particular expression, the translator needs to know whether or not it represents something. This can only be done by considering the surrounding text. The surrounding text shows us, for example, whether “lamp” refers literally to a container with oil and a wick for giving light or whether “lamp” is a metaphor that represents life. (See “LIGHT or FIRE represents life” in [Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena](../bita-phenom/01.md).)
(2) When looking at a particular expression, the translator needs to know whether or not it represents something. This can only be done by considering the surrounding text. The surrounding text shows us, for example, whether “lamp” refers literally to a container with oil and a wick for giving light or whether “lamp” is a metaphor that represents life. (See “LIGHT or FIRE represents life” in [Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena](../bita-phenom/01.md).)

In 1 Kings 7:50, a lamp trimmer is a tool for trimming the wick on an ordinary lamp. In 2 Samuel 21:17 the lamp of Israel represents King David’s life. When his men were concerned that he might “put out the lamp of Israel” they were concerned that he might be killed.

@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ In 1 Kings 7:50, a lamp trimmer is a tool for trimming the wick on an ordinary l

> Ishbibenob … intended to kill David. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah rescued David, attacked the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, “You must not go to battle anymore with us, so that you do not put out the **lamp** of Israel.” (2 Samuel 21:16-17 ULT)

(3) Expressions that are based on these pairings of ideas frequently combine together in complex ways. Moreover, they frequently combine with (and in some cases are based on) common metonymies and cultural models. (See [Biblical Imagery – Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md) and [Biblical Imagery – Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)
(3) Expressions that are based on these pairings of ideas frequently combine together in complex ways. Moreover, they frequently combine with (and in some cases are based on) common metonymies and cultural models. (See [Biblical Imagery — Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md) and [Biblical Imagery — Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).)

For example, in 2 Samuel 14:7 below, “the burning coal” is an image for the life of the son, who represents what will cause people to remember his father. So there are two patterns of pairings here: the pairing of the burning coal with the life of the son, and the pairing of the son with the memory of his father.

@@ -38,8 +38,8 @@ For example, in 2 Samuel 14:7 below, “the burning coal” is an image for the

The following pages have lists of some of the Images that represent Ideas in the Bible, together with examples from the Bible. They are organized according to the kinds of image:

* [Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities](../bita-hq/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery – Human Behavior](../bita-humanbehavior/01.md) – Includes both physical and non-physical actions, conditions and experiences
* [Biblical Imagery Plants](../bita-plants/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena](../bita-phenom/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects](../bita-manmade/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities](../bita-hq/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery — Human Behavior](../bita-humanbehavior/01.md) — Includes both physical and non-physical actions, conditions and experiences
* [Biblical Imagery Plants](../bita-plants/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena](../bita-phenom/01.md)
* [Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects](../bita-manmade/01.md)

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Biblical Imagery Common Patterns
Biblical Imagery Common Patterns

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Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies
Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies

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Biblical Imagery Cultural Models
Biblical Imagery Cultural Models

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Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena
Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena

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Biblical Imagery Plants
Biblical Imagery Plants

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Before beginning a translation of the Bible, the translation committee needs to discuss and agree on the style that they want the translation to have. The following topics should be included in the discussion.

1. **Form** Should the translation follow the form of the source language so that people who are used to hearing and reading the Bible in the source language will feel more comfortable with it, or should the translation follow the form of the target language, and be easier to understand? In most cases we recommend that it is better if the translation follows the form of the target language so that people can understand it better. This means that it will be harder to compare with the source language Bible because it will put things in a different order and use different kinds of expressions that are clear and natural in the target language. But when a Bible is clear and natural, many people will want to read it and hear it, not just the people who have been part of the church for many years.
1. **Form** Should the translation follow the form of the source language so that people who are used to hearing and reading the Bible in the source language will feel more comfortable with it, or should the translation follow the form of the target language, and be easier to understand? In most cases we recommend that it is better if the translation follows the form of the target language so that people can understand it better. This means that it will be harder to compare with the source language Bible because it will put things in a different order and use different kinds of expressions that are clear and natural in the target language. But when a Bible is clear and natural, many people will want to read it and hear it, not just the people who have been part of the church for many years.

2. **Format** Is this a written translation to be read from a book, or a translation to be recorded and listened to? If it is a written translation to be used in church, the people may prefer a more formal style. If it is for a recording, the people may prefer a style that is more like people talking informally.
2. **Format** Is this a written translation to be read from a book, or a translation to be recorded and listened to? If it is a written translation to be used in church, the people may prefer a more formal style. If it is for a recording, the people may prefer a style that is more like people talking informally.

3. **Borrowing** Should the translation borrow many words from the source language, or should the translators find ways to express these things using target language words? People who have been part of the church for many years may be used to hearing many biblical concepts expressed with source language words. If these words are widely understood outside of the church, then it may be fine to use them in the translation. But if people outside of the church do not understand these words, it would be better to find ways to express these things using target language words.
3. **Borrowing** Should the translation borrow many words from the source language, or should the translators find ways to express these things using target language words? People who have been part of the church for many years may be used to hearing many biblical concepts expressed with source language words. If these words are widely understood outside of the church, then it may be fine to use them in the translation. But if people outside of the church do not understand these words, it would be better to find ways to express these things using target language words.

4. **Old Words** Should the translation use words that only the old people know, or should it use words that everyone knows? Sometimes there is a good target language word for something, but the young people do not use it or know it. The translation committee can decide if they should use this word and teach it to the young people, or use a word borrowed from the source language, or express the same concept using a phrase or description using target language words that everyone knows.
4. **Old Words** Should the translation use words that only the old people know, or should it use words that everyone knows? Sometimes there is a good target language word for something, but the young people do not use it or know it. The translation committee can decide if they should use this word and teach it to the young people, or use a word borrowed from the source language, or express the same concept using a phrase or description using target language words that everyone knows.

5. **Register** If the target language has different registers or levels of the language, which one should the translation use? For example, if people of high status use one form of the target language and people of low status use a different form, which one should the translation use? Or if the target language has different words for “you” or uses different words to address a government official in contrast with someone who is a close family member, which should the translation use to address God? Thinking about the topic of **Audience** may also help to decide these questions.
5. **Register** If the target language has different registers or levels of the language, which one should the translation use? For example, if people of high status use one form of the target language and people of low status use a different form, which one should the translation use? Or if the target language has different words for “you” or uses different words to address a government official in contrast with someone who is a close family member, which should the translation use to address God? Thinking about the topic of **Audience** may also help to decide these questions.

6. **Audience** The translation committee should discuss who is the audience for this translation. Is it primarily educated people, so they should use a style that uses long sentences and many borrowed words? Is it primarily for young people, or old people, for men or women? Or is it for everyone? In that case, it should use simple language so that everyone can understand it. For more on this topic, see also [Aim](../translate-aim/01.md).
6. **Audience** The translation committee should discuss who is the audience for this translation. Is it primarily educated people, so they should use a style that uses long sentences and many borrowed words? Is it primarily for young people, or old people, for men or women? Or is it for everyone? In that case, it should use simple language so that everyone can understand it. For more on this topic, see also [Aim](../translate-aim/01.md).

7. **Footnotes** Should the translation put explanations of difficult things in footnotes? If so, should it use many footnotes, or only for certain topics or especially difficult things? Will people understand what footnotes are and how they work, or will they be confused by them? Instead of footnotes, would it be better to put short explanations in the text of the Bible translation? Or should the translation not include any extra explanations at all? To help in making this decision, consider how well your people understand biblical culture and such things as shepherds, fishing with nets, sailing boats, kings, ancient warfare with chariots, etc., and how much of this might need to be explained.
7. **Footnotes** Should the translation put explanations of difficult things in footnotes? If so, should it use many footnotes, or only for certain topics or especially difficult things? Will people understand what footnotes are and how they work, or will they be confused by them? Instead of footnotes, would it be better to put short explanations in the text of the Bible translation? Or should the translation not include any extra explanations at all? To help in making this decision, consider how well your people understand biblical culture and such things as shepherds, fishing with nets, sailing boats, kings, ancient warfare with chariots, etc., and how much of this might need to be explained.

8. **Pictures** Will pictures be used in the Bible translation? If so, how many? Pictures can be very useful for showing things that are unknown in the target culture, such as certain animals or tools or clothing. Using pictures for these things can reduce the need to explain them in footnotes.
8. **Pictures** Will pictures be used in the Bible translation? If so, how many? Pictures can be very useful for showing things that are unknown in the target culture, such as certain animals or tools or clothing. Using pictures for these things can reduce the need to explain them in footnotes.

9. **Headings** Should the translation use section headings that summarize what each section is talking about? If so, what style of headings should be used? These can be very helpful for finding different topics. See [Headings](../../checking/headings/01.md) for examples.
9. **Headings** Should the translation use section headings that summarize what each section is talking about? If so, what style of headings should be used? These can be very helpful for finding different topics. See [Headings](../../checking/headings/01.md) for examples.

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### Description

* First person This is how a speaker normally refers to himself. English uses the pronouns “I” and “we.” (Also: me, my, mine; us, our, ours)
* Second person This is how a speaker normally refers to the person or people he is speaking to. English uses the pronoun “you.” (Also: your, yours)
* Third person This is how a speaker refers to someone else. English uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” “it,” and “they.” (Also: him, his, her, hers, its; them, their, theirs) Noun phrases like “the man” or “the woman” are also third person.
* First person This is how a speaker normally refers to himself. English uses the pronouns “I” and “we.” (Also: me, my, mine; us, our, ours)
* Second person This is how a speaker normally refers to the person or people he is speaking to. English uses the pronoun “you.” (Also: your, yours)
* Third person This is how a speaker refers to someone else. English uses the pronouns “he,” “she,” “it,” and “they.” (Also: him, his, her, hers, its; them, their, theirs) Noun phrases like “the man” or “the woman” are also third person.

### Reason This Is a Translation Issue



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* For strategies regarding translating metaphors, see [Metaphor](../figs-metaphor/01.md).

* To learn more about biblical imagery, complex metaphors, and cultural models in the Bible, see [Biblical Imagery](../biblicalimageryta/01.md) and/or [Biblical Imagery – Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) and/or [Biblical Imagery – Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).
* To learn more about biblical imagery, complex metaphors, and cultural models in the Bible, see [Biblical Imagery](../biblicalimageryta/01.md) and/or [Biblical Imagery — Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) and/or [Biblical Imagery — Cultural Models](../bita-part3/01.md).

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Statements Other Uses
Statements Other Uses

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(1) Use a euphemism from your own culture.

> … where there was a cave. Saul went inside to **cover his feet**. (1 Samuel 24:3b ULT) Some languages might use euphemisms like these:
> … where there was a cave. Saul went inside to **cover his feet**. (1 Samuel 24:3b ULT) Some languages might use euphemisms like these:
>
> > “… where there was a cave. Saul went into the cave to **dig a hole**”<br>
> > “… where there was a cave. Saul went into the cave to **have some time alone**”


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Biblical Imagery Extended Metaphors
Biblical Imagery Extended Metaphors

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(2) Use a word that refers to men and a word that refers to women.

> For we do not want you to be uninformed, **brothers**, about the troubles that happened to us in Asia. (2 Corinthians 1:8) Paul was writing this letter to both men and women.
> For we do not want you to be uninformed, **brothers**, about the troubles that happened to us in Asia. (2 Corinthians 1:8) Paul was writing this letter to both men and women.
> > “For we do not want you to be uninformed, **brothers and sisters**, about the troubles that happened to us in Asia.”

(3) Use pronouns that can be used for both men and women.


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Grammar has two main parts: words and structure. Structure involves how we put words together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Here is a brief overview of Grammar Topics we will deal with in detail.

**Parts of Speech** Every word in a language belongs to a category called a part of speech. (See [Parts of Speech](../figs-partsofspeech/01.md).)
**Parts of Speech** Every word in a language belongs to a category called a part of speech. (See [Parts of Speech](../figs-partsofspeech/01.md).)

**Sentences** When we speak, we organize our thoughts in sentences. A sentence usually has a complete thought about an event or a situation or state of being. (See [Sentence Structure](../figs-sentences/01.md).)
**Sentences** When we speak, we organize our thoughts in sentences. A sentence usually has a complete thought about an event or a situation or state of being. (See [Sentence Structure](../figs-sentences/01.md).)

* Sentences can be statements, questions, commands, or exclamations. (See [Exclamations](../figs-sentencetypes/01.md).)
* Sentences can have more than one clause. (See [Sentence Structure](../figs-sentences/01.md).)
* Some languages have both active and passive sentences. (See [Active or Passive](../figs-activepassive/01.md).)

**Possession** This shows that there is a relationship between two nouns. In English it is marked with “of” as in “the love of God,” or with “’s” as in “God’s love,” or with a possessive pronoun as in “his love.” (See [Possession](../figs-possession/01.md).)
**Possession** This shows that there is a relationship between two nouns. In English it is marked with “of” as in “the love of God,” or with “’s” as in “God’s love,” or with a possessive pronoun as in “his love.” (See [Possession](../figs-possession/01.md).)

**Quotations** A quotation is a report of what someone else has said.
**Quotations** A quotation is a report of what someone else has said.

* Quotations normally have two parts: Information about who said something and what the person said. (See [Quotations and Quote Margins](../writing-quotations/01.md).)
* Quotations can be either direct quotes or indirect quotes. (See [Direct and Indirect Quotations](../figs-quotations/01.md).)


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Imperatives Other Uses
Imperatives Other Uses

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Listed below are different types of Figures of Speech. If you would like additional information simply click the colored word to be directed to a page containing definitions, examples, and videos for each figure of speech.

* **[Apostrophe](../figs-apostrophe/01.md)** An apostrophe is a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses someone who is not there, or addresses a thing that is not a person.
* **[Apostrophe](../figs-apostrophe/01.md)** An apostrophe is a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses someone who is not there, or addresses a thing that is not a person.

* **[Doublet](../figs-doublet/01.md)** A doublet is a pair of words or very short phrases that mean the same thing and that are used in the same phrase. In the Bible, doublets are often used in poetry, prophecy, and sermons to emphasize an idea.
* **[Doublet](../figs-doublet/01.md)** A doublet is a pair of words or very short phrases that mean the same thing and that are used in the same phrase. In the Bible, doublets are often used in poetry, prophecy, and sermons to emphasize an idea.

* **[Euphemism](../figs-euphemism/01.md)** A euphemism is a mild or polite way of referring to something that is unpleasant or embarrassing. Its purpose is to avoid offending the people who hear or read it.
* **[Euphemism](../figs-euphemism/01.md)** A euphemism is a mild or polite way of referring to something that is unpleasant or embarrassing. Its purpose is to avoid offending the people who hear or read it.

* **[Hendiadys](../figs-hendiadys/01.md)** In hendiadys a single idea is expressed with two words connected with “and,” when one word could be used to modify the other.
* **[Hendiadys](../figs-hendiadys/01.md)** In hendiadys a single idea is expressed with two words connected with “and,” when one word could be used to modify the other.

* **[Hyperbole](../figs-hyperbole/01.md)** A hyperbole is a deliberate exaggeration used to indicate the speaker’s feeling or opinion about something.
* **[Hyperbole](../figs-hyperbole/01.md)** A hyperbole is a deliberate exaggeration used to indicate the speaker’s feeling or opinion about something.

* **[Idiom](../figs-idiom/01.md)** An idiom is a group of words that has a meaning that is different from what one would understand from the meanings of the individual words.
* **[Idiom](../figs-idiom/01.md)** An idiom is a group of words that has a meaning that is different from what one would understand from the meanings of the individual words.

* **[Irony](../figs-irony/01.md)** Irony is a figure of speech in which the sense that the speaker intends to communicate is actually the opposite of the literal meaning of the words.
* **[Irony](../figs-irony/01.md)** Irony is a figure of speech in which the sense that the speaker intends to communicate is actually the opposite of the literal meaning of the words.

* **[Litotes](../figs-litotes/01.md)** Litotes is an emphatic statement about something made by negating an opposite expression.
* **[Litotes](../figs-litotes/01.md)** Litotes is an emphatic statement about something made by negating an opposite expression.

* **[Merism](../figs-merism/01.md)** Merism is a figure of speech in which a person refers to something by listing some of its parts or by speaking of two extreme parts of it.
* **[Merism](../figs-merism/01.md)** Merism is a figure of speech in which a person refers to something by listing some of its parts or by speaking of two extreme parts of it.

* **[Metaphor](../figs-metaphor/01.md)** A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one concept is used in place of another, unrelated concept. This invites the hearer to think of what the unrelated concepts have in common. That is, metaphor is an implied comparison between two unrelated things.
* **[Metaphor](../figs-metaphor/01.md)** A metaphor is a figure of speech in which one concept is used in place of another, unrelated concept. This invites the hearer to think of what the unrelated concepts have in common. That is, metaphor is an implied comparison between two unrelated things.

* **[Metonymy](../figs-metonymy/01.md)** Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or idea is called not by its own name, but by the name of something closely associated with it. A metonym is a word or phrase used as a substitute for something it is associated with.
* **[Metonymy](../figs-metonymy/01.md)** Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or idea is called not by its own name, but by the name of something closely associated with it. A metonym is a word or phrase used as a substitute for something it is associated with.

* **[Parallelism](../figs-parallelism/01.md)** In parallelism two phrases or clauses that are similar in structure or idea are used together. It is found throughout the whole of the Hebrew Bible, most commonly in the poetry of the books of Psalms and Proverbs.
* **[Parallelism](../figs-parallelism/01.md)** In parallelism two phrases or clauses that are similar in structure or idea are used together. It is found throughout the whole of the Hebrew Bible, most commonly in the poetry of the books of Psalms and Proverbs.

* **[Personification](../figs-personification/01.md)** Personification is a figure of speech in which an idea or something that is not human is referred to as if it were a person and could do the things that people do or have the qualities that people have.
* **[Personification](../figs-personification/01.md)** Personification is a figure of speech in which an idea or something that is not human is referred to as if it were a person and could do the things that people do or have the qualities that people have.

* **[Predictive Past](../figs-pastforfuture/01.md)** The predictive past is a form that some languages use to refer to things that will happen in the future. This is sometimes done in prophecy to show that the event will certainly happen.
* **[Predictive Past](../figs-pastforfuture/01.md)** The predictive past is a form that some languages use to refer to things that will happen in the future. This is sometimes done in prophecy to show that the event will certainly happen.

* **[Rhetorical Question](../figs-rquestion/01.md)** A rhetorical question is a question that is used for something other than getting information. Often it indicates the speaker’s attitude toward the topic or the listener. Often it is used for rebuking or scolding, but some languages have other purposes as well.
* **[Rhetorical Question](../figs-rquestion/01.md)** A rhetorical question is a question that is used for something other than getting information. Often it indicates the speaker’s attitude toward the topic or the listener. Often it is used for rebuking or scolding, but some languages have other purposes as well.

* **[Simile](../figs-simile/01.md)** A simile is a comparison of two things that are not normally thought to be similar. It focuses on a particular trait that the two items have in common, and it includes words such as “like,” “as,” or “than” to make the comparison explicit.
* **[Simile](../figs-simile/01.md)** A simile is a comparison of two things that are not normally thought to be similar. It focuses on a particular trait that the two items have in common, and it includes words such as “like,” “as,” or “than” to make the comparison explicit.

* **[Synecdoche](../figs-synecdoche/01.md)** Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which (1) the name of a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or (2) the name of a whole thing is used to refer to just one part of it.
* **[Synecdoche](../figs-synecdoche/01.md)** Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which (1) the name of a part of something is used to refer to the whole thing, or (2) the name of a whole thing is used to refer to just one part of it.

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@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ When these metaphors are used in normal ways, it is rare that the speaker and au
* “You **defend** your theory well.” Argument is spoken of as war.
* “A **flow** of words.” Words are spoken of as liquids.

English speakers do not view these as metaphorical expressions or figures of speech, so it would be wrong to translate them into other languages in a way that would lead people to pay special attention to them as figurative speech. For a description of important patterns of this kind of metaphor in biblical languages, please see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) and the pages it will direct you to.
English speakers do not view these as metaphorical expressions or figures of speech, so it would be wrong to translate them into other languages in a way that would lead people to pay special attention to them as figurative speech. For a description of important patterns of this kind of metaphor in biblical languages, please see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md) and the pages it will direct you to.

When translating something that is a passive metaphor into another language, do not treat it as a metaphor. Instead, just use the best expression for that thing or concept in the target language.

@@ -173,4 +173,4 @@ We made no change to this one, but it must be tested to make sure that the targe
> > I will make you to become **people who gather men**.
> > Now you gather fish. I will make you **gather people**.

To learn more about specific metaphors, see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).
To learn more about specific metaphors, see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).

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@@ -62,4 +62,4 @@ This verse also contains a second metonym: The cup, (representing the wine it co
>
> > “Who warned you to flee from God’s coming **punishment**?”

To learn about some common metonymies, see [Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md).
To learn about some common metonymies, see [Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies](../bita-part2/01.md).

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@@ -41,19 +41,19 @@ If the personification would be understood clearly, consider using it. If it wou

(1) Add words or phrases to make the human (or animal) characteristic clear.

> **Sin crouches** at the door. (Genesis 4:7b ULT) God speaks of sin as if it were a wild animal that is waiting for the chance to attack. This shows how dangerous sin is. An additional phrase can be added to make this danger clear.
> **Sin crouches** at the door. (Genesis 4:7b ULT) God speaks of sin as if it were a wild animal that is waiting for the chance to attack. This shows how dangerous sin is. An additional phrase can be added to make this danger clear.

> > **Sin** is at your door, **waiting to attack you.**

(2) In addition to Strategy (1), use words such as “like” or “as” to show that the sentence is not to be understood literally.

> Sin crouches at the door. (Genesis 4:7b ULT) This can be translated with the word “as.”
> Sin crouches at the door. (Genesis 4:7b ULT) This can be translated with the word “as.”

> > Sin is crouching at the door, **just as a wild animal does as it waits to attack a person.**.

(3) Find a way to translate it without the personification.

> Even the **winds and the sea obey him**. (Matthew 8:27b ULT) The men speak of the “wind and the sea” as if they are able to hear and obey Jesus, just as people can. This could also be translated without the idea of obedience by speaking of Jesus controlling them.
> Even the **winds and the sea obey him**. (Matthew 8:27b ULT) The men speak of the “wind and the sea” as if they are able to hear and obey Jesus, just as people can. This could also be translated without the idea of obedience by speaking of Jesus controlling them.
> > He even **controls the winds and the sea**.

**NOTE**: We have broadened our definition of “personification” to include “zoomorphism” (speaking of other things as if they had animal characteristics) and “anthropomorphism” (speaking of non-human things as if they had human characteristics) because the translation strategies for them are the same.

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@@ -8,19 +8,19 @@ In English, the grammatical form that commonly indicates possession is also used

Possession is used in Hebrew, Greek, and English for a variety of situations. Here are a few common situations that it is used for.

* Ownership Someone owns something.
* My clothes The clothes that I own
* Social Relationship Someone has some kind of social relationship with another.
* my mother the woman who gave birth to me, or the woman who cared for me
* my teacher the person who teaches me
* Association A particular thing is associated with a particular person, place, or thing.
* David’s sickness the sickness that David is experiencing
* the fear of the Lord the fear that is appropriate for a human being to have when relating to the Lord
* Contents Something has something in it.
* a bag of clothes a bag that has clothes in it, or a bag that is full of clothes
* Ownership Someone owns something.
* My clothes The clothes that I own
* Social Relationship Someone has some kind of social relationship with another.
* my mother the woman who gave birth to me, or the woman who cared for me
* my teacher the person who teaches me
* Association A particular thing is associated with a particular person, place, or thing.
* David’s sickness the sickness that David is experiencing
* the fear of the Lord the fear that is appropriate for a human being to have when relating to the Lord
* Contents Something has something in it.
* a bag of clothes a bag that has clothes in it, or a bag that is full of clothes
* Part and whole: One thing is part of another.
* my head the head that is part of my body
* the roof of a house the roof that is part of a house
* my head the head that is part of my body
* the roof of a house the roof that is part of a house

In some languages there is a special form of possession, termed **inalienable possession.** This form of possession is used for things that cannot be removed from you, as opposed to things you could lose. In the examples above, *my head* and *my mother* are examples of inalienable possession (at least in some languages), while *my clothes* or *my teacher* would be alienably possessed. What may be considered alienable vs. inalienable may differ by language.

@@ -31,31 +31,31 @@ In some languages there is a special form of possession, termed **inalienable po

### Examples From the Bible

**Ownership** In the example below, the son owned the money.
**Ownership** In the example below, the son owned the money.

> The younger son … wasted his wealth by living recklessly. (Luke 15:13b)

**Social Relationship** In the example below, the disciples were people who learned from John.
**Social Relationship** In the example below, the disciples were people who learned from John.

> Then **the disciples of John** came to him. (Matthew 9:14a ULT)

**Association** In the example below, the gospel is the message associated with Paul because he preaches it.
**Association** In the example below, the gospel is the message associated with Paul because he preaches it.

> Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead, from the seed of David, according to **my gospel**, (2 Timothy 2:8 ULT)

**Material** In the example below, the material used for making the crowns was gold.
**Material** In the example below, the material used for making the crowns was gold.

> On their heads were something like **crowns of gold.** (Revelation 9:7b)

**Contents** In the example below, the cup has water in it.
**Contents** In the example below, the cup has water in it.

> For whoever gives you **a cup of water** to drink … will not lose his reward. (Mark 9:41 ULT)

**Part of a whole** In the example below, the door was a part of the palace.
**Part of a whole** In the example below, the door was a part of the palace.

> But Uriah slept at **the door of the king’s palace.** (2 Samuel 11:9a ULT)

**Part of a group** In the example below, “us” refers to the whole group and “each one” refers to the individual members.
**Part of a group** In the example below, “us” refers to the whole group and “each one” refers to the individual members.

> Now to **each one of us** grace has been given according to the measure of the gift of Christ. (Ephesians 4:7 ULT)

@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ In some languages there is a special form of possession, termed **inalienable po

Sometimes one or both of the nouns is an abstract noun that refers to an event or action. In the examples below, the abstract nouns are in **bold** print. These are just some of the relationships that are possible between two nouns when one of them refers to an event.

**Subject** Sometimes the word after “of” tells who would do the action named by the first noun. In the example below, **John baptized people**.
**Subject** Sometimes the word after “of” tells who would do the action named by the first noun. In the example below, **John baptized people**.

> The **baptism of John**, was it from heaven or from men? Answer me. (Mark 11:30)

@@ -71,15 +71,15 @@ In the example below, **Christ loves us**.

> Who will separate us from the **love of Christ**? (Romans 8:35)

**Object** Sometimes the word after “of” tells who or what something would happen to. In the example below, **people love money**.
**Object** Sometimes the word after “of” tells who or what something would happen to. In the example below, **people love money**.

> For the **love of money** is a root of all kinds of evil. (1 Timothy 6:10a ULT)

**Instrument** Sometimes the word after “of” tells how something would happen. In the example below, God would **punish people by sending enemies to attack them with swords**.
**Instrument** Sometimes the word after “of” tells how something would happen. In the example below, God would **punish people by sending enemies to attack them with swords**.

> Then be afraid of the sword, because wrath brings **the punishment of the sword**. (Job 19:29a ULT)

**Representation** In the example below, John was baptizing people who were repenting of their sins. They were being baptized to show that they were repenting. Their **baptism represented their repentance**.
**Representation** In the example below, John was baptizing people who were repenting of their sins. They were being baptized to show that they were repenting. Their **baptism represented their repentance**.

> John came, baptizing in the wilderness and preaching **a baptism of repentance** for the forgiveness of sins. (Mark 1:4 ULT)



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@@ -8,24 +8,24 @@ Personal pronouns refer to people or things and show whether the speaker is refe

#### Person

* First Person The speaker and possibly others (I, we)
* First Person The speaker and possibly others (I, we)
* [Exclusive and Inclusive “We”](../figs-exclusive/01.md)
* Second Person The person or people that the speaker is talking to and possibly others (you)
* Second Person The person or people that the speaker is talking to and possibly others (you)
* [Forms of You](../figs-you/01.md)
* Third Person Someone or something other than the speaker and those he is talking to (he, she, it, they)
* Third Person Someone or something other than the speaker and those he is talking to (he, she, it, they)

#### Number

* Singular one (I, you, he, she, it)
* Plural more than one (we, you, they)
* Singular one (I, you, he, she, it)
* Plural more than one (we, you, they)
* [Singular Pronouns that Refer to Groups](../figs-youcrowd/01.md)
* Dual two (Some languages have pronouns specifically for two people or two things.)
* Dual two (Some languages have pronouns specifically for two people or two things.)

#### Gender

* Masculine he
* Feminine she
* Neuter it
* Masculine he
* Feminine she
* Neuter it

#### Relationship to other words in the sentence



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@@ -2,10 +2,10 @@

A **sentence** is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. The basic types of sentences are listed below with the functions they are mainly used for.

* **Statements** These are mainly used to give information. ‘This is a fact.’
* **Questions** These are mainly used to ask for information. ‘Do you know him?’
* **Imperative Sentences** These are mainly used to express a desire or requirement that someone do something. ‘Pick that up.’
* **Exclamations** These are mainly used to express a strong feeling. ‘Ouch, that hurt!’
* **Statements** These are mainly used to give information. ‘This is a fact.’
* **Questions** These are mainly used to ask for information. ‘Do you know him?’
* **Imperative Sentences** These are mainly used to express a desire or requirement that someone do something. ‘Pick that up.’
* **Exclamations** These are mainly used to express a strong feeling. ‘Ouch, that hurt!’

#### Reasons This Is a Translation Issue

@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ The examples below show each of these types used for their main functions.

> In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1 ULT)

Statements can also have other functions. (See [Statements Other Uses](../figs-declarative/01.md).)
Statements can also have other functions. (See [Statements Other Uses](../figs-declarative/01.md).)

#### Questions

@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ In Genesis 21, Hagar expressed her strong desire not to see her son die, and the

> **Let me not look** upon the death of the child. (Genesis 21:16b ULT)

Imperative sentences can have other functions also. (See [Imperatives Other Uses](../figs-imperative/01.md).)
Imperative sentences can have other functions also. (See [Imperatives Other Uses](../figs-imperative/01.md).)

#### Exclamations

@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ Exclamations express strong feeling. In the ULT and UST, they usually have an ex
(1) Use your language’s ways of showing that a sentence has a particular function.<br>
(2) When a sentence in the Bible has a sentence type that your language would not use for the sentence’s function, see the pages below for translation strategies.

* [Statements Other Uses](../figs-declarative/01.md)
* [Statements Other Uses](../figs-declarative/01.md)
* [Rhetorical Question](../figs-rquestion/01.md)
* [Imperatives Other Uses](../figs-imperative/01.md)
* [Imperatives Other Uses](../figs-imperative/01.md)
* [Exclamations](../figs-exclamations/01.md)

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@@ -40,4 +40,4 @@ Jesus used a metaphor here, but his disciples did not realize it. When he said

* For strategies regarding translating metaphors, see [Metaphor](../figs-metaphor/01.md).

* To learn more about simple metaphors, see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).
* To learn more about simple metaphors, see [Biblical Imagery Common Patterns](../bita-part1/01.md).

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@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ If people would understand the correct meaning of a simile, consider using it. I

(1) If people do not know how the two items are alike, tell how they are alike. However, do not do this if the meaning was not clear to the original audience.<br>

> See, I send you out **as sheep in the midst of wolves.** (Matthew 10:16a ULT) This compares the danger that Jesus’ disciples would be in with the danger that sheep are in when they are surrounded by wolves.
> See, I send you out **as sheep in the midst of wolves.** (Matthew 10:16a ULT) This compares the danger that Jesus’ disciples would be in with the danger that sheep are in when they are surrounded by wolves.
>
> > See, I send **you out among wicked people** and you will be in danger from them **as sheep are in danger when they are among wolves**.
>
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ If people would understand the correct meaning of a simile, consider using it. I

(2) If people are not familiar with the item that something is compared to, use an item from your own culture. Be sure that it is one that could have been used in the cultures of the Bible. If you use this strategy, you may want to put the original item in a footnote.<br>

> See, I send you out **as sheep in the midst of wolves**, (Matthew 10:16a ULT) If people do not know what sheep and wolves are, or that wolves kill and eat sheep, you could use some other animal that kills another.
> See, I send you out **as sheep in the midst of wolves**, (Matthew 10:16a ULT) If people do not know what sheep and wolves are, or that wolves kill and eat sheep, you could use some other animal that kills another.
>
> > See, I send you out **as chickens in the midst of wild dogs**.
>


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@@ -16,4 +16,4 @@ You may also want to watch the video at https://ufw.io/figs_youform.

For help with translating these, we suggest you read:

* [Forms of “You” Formal or Informal](../figs-youformal/01.md)
* [Forms of “You” Formal or Informal](../figs-youformal/01.md)

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Forms of ‘You’ Dual/Plural
Forms of ‘You’ Dual/Plural

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Forms of ‘You’ Formal or Informal
Forms of ‘You’ Formal or Informal

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@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ The Bible was first written in the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek languages. These l
* Many languages also have different forms of the verb depending on whether the subject is singular or plural. So even if there is no pronoun meaning “you,” translators of these languages will need to know if the speaker was referring to one person or more than one.

Often the context will make it clear whether the word “you” refers to one person or more than one. If you look at the other pronouns in the sentence, they will help you know the number of people the speaker was speaking to.
Sometimes Greek and Hebrew speakers used the singular form of “you” even though they were speaking to a group of people. (See [Forms of ‘You’ Singular to a Crowd](../figs-youcrowd/01.md).)
Sometimes Greek and Hebrew speakers used the singular form of “you” even though they were speaking to a group of people. (See [Forms of ‘You’ Singular to a Crowd](../figs-youcrowd/01.md).)

### Examples From the Bible



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@@ -1 +1 @@
Forms of ‘You’ Singular
Forms of ‘You’ Singular

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Contrary to Fact Conditions
Connect Contrary to Fact Conditions

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Factual Conditions
Connect Factual Conditions

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Hypothetical Conditions
Connect Hypothetical Conditions

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Exception Clauses
Connect Exception Clauses

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Contrast Relationship
Connect Contrast Relationship

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Goal (Purpose) Relationship
Connect Goal (Purpose) Relationship

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@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ A reason-and-result relationship is a logical relationship in which one event is

#### Reason This Is a Translation Issue

A reason-and-result relationship can look forward – “I did Y because I wanted X to happen.” But usually it is looking backward – “X happened, and so I did Y.” Also, it is possible to state the reason either before or after the result. Many languages have a preferred order for the reason and the result, and it will be confusing for the reader if they are in the opposite order. Common words used to indicate a reason-and-result relationship in English are “because,” “so,” “therefore,” and “for.” Some of these words can also be used to indicate a goal relationship, so translators need to be aware of the difference between a goal relationship and a reason-and-result relationship. It is necessary for translators to understand how the two events are connected, and then communicate them clearly in their language.
A reason-and-result relationship can look forward — “I did Y because I wanted X to happen.” But usually it is looking backward — “X happened, and so I did Y.” Also, it is possible to state the reason either before or after the result. Many languages have a preferred order for the reason and the result, and it will be confusing for the reader if they are in the opposite order. Common words used to indicate a reason-and-result relationship in English are “because,” “so,” “therefore,” and “for.” Some of these words can also be used to indicate a goal relationship, so translators need to be aware of the difference between a goal relationship and a reason-and-result relationship. It is necessary for translators to understand how the two events are connected, and then communicate them clearly in their language.

If the reason and result are stated in different verses, it is still possible to put them in a different order. If you change the order of the verses, then put the verse numbers together at the beginning of the group of verses that were rearranged like this: 1-2. This is called a [Verse Bridge](../translate-versebridge/01.md).

@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ If the reason and result are stated in different verses, it is still possible to

> The Jews were amazed, **because** Saul had tried to kill believers, and now he believed in Jesus! (Story 46 Frame 6 OBS)

The **reason** is the change in Saul that he had tried to kill people who believed in Jesus, and now he himself believed in Jesus. The **result** is that the Jews were amazed. “Because” connects the two ideas and indicates that what follows it is a reason.
The **reason** is the change in Saul that he had tried to kill people who believed in Jesus, and now he himself believed in Jesus. The **result** is that the Jews were amazed. “Because” connects the two ideas and indicates that what follows it is a reason.

> Behold, a great storm arose on the sea, **so that** the boat was covered with the waves. (Matthew 8:24a ULT)



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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Reason-and-Result Relationship
Connect Reason-and-Result Relationship

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Background Information
Connect Background Information

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@@ -1 +1 @@
Connect Sequential Time Relationship
Connect Sequential Time Relationship

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@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ The people were both waiting and wondering at the same time. The general connect

> **While** they were looking intensely into heaven **as** he was going up, suddenly, two men stood by them in white clothing. (Acts 1:10 ULT)

Three events happened at the same time the disciples looking, Jesus going up, and two men standing. The connector words “**while**” and “**as**” tell us this.
Three events happened at the same time the disciples looking, Jesus going up, and two men standing. The connector words “**while**” and “**as**” tell us this.

#### Translation Strategies



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Connect Simultaneous Time Relationship
Connect Simultaneous Time Relationship

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Listed below are different types of connections between ideas or events. These different types of connections can be indicated by using different connecting words. When we write or translate something, it is important to use the right connecting word so that these connections are clear for the reader. If you would like additional information, simply click the colored, hyperlinked word to be directed to a page containing definitions and examples for each type of connection.

* [Sequential Clause](../grammar-connect-time-sequential/01.md) a time relationship between two events in which one happens and then the other happens.
* [Simultaneous Clause](../grammar-connect-time-simultaneous/01.md) a time relationship between two or more events that occur at the same time.
* [Background Clause](../grammar-connect-time-background/01.md) a time relationship in which the first clause describes a long event that is happening at the time when the beginning of the second event happens, which is described in the second clause.
* [Exceptional Relationship](../grammar-connect-exceptions/01.md) one clause describes a group of people or items, and the other clause excludes one or more items or people from the group.
* [Hypothetical Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical/01.md) the second event will only take place if the first one takes place. Sometimes what takes place is dependent on the actions of other people.
* [Factual Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-fact/01.md) a connection that sounds hypothetical but is already certain or true, so that the condition is guaranteed to happen.
* [Contrary-to-Fact Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-contrary/01.md) a connection that sounds hypothetical but is already certain that it is not true. See also: [Hypothetical Statements](../figs-hypo/01.md).
* [Goal Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-goal/01.md) a logical relationship in which the second event is the purpose or goal of the first.
* [Reason and Result Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-result/01.md) a logical relationship in which one event is the reason for the other event, the result.
* [Contrast Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-contrast/01.md) one item is being described as different or in opposition to another.
* [Sequential Clause](../grammar-connect-time-sequential/01.md) a time relationship between two events in which one happens and then the other happens.
* [Simultaneous Clause](../grammar-connect-time-simultaneous/01.md) a time relationship between two or more events that occur at the same time.
* [Background Clause](../grammar-connect-time-background/01.md) a time relationship in which the first clause describes a long event that is happening at the time when the beginning of the second event happens, which is described in the second clause.
* [Exceptional Relationship](../grammar-connect-exceptions/01.md) one clause describes a group of people or items, and the other clause excludes one or more items or people from the group.
* [Hypothetical Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-hypothetical/01.md) the second event will only take place if the first one takes place. Sometimes what takes place is dependent on the actions of other people.
* [Factual Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-fact/01.md) a connection that sounds hypothetical but is already certain or true, so that the condition is guaranteed to happen.
* [Contrary-to-Fact Condition](../grammar-connect-condition-contrary/01.md) a connection that sounds hypothetical but is already certain that it is not true. See also: [Hypothetical Statements](../figs-hypo/01.md).
* [Goal Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-goal/01.md) a logical relationship in which the second event is the purpose or goal of the first.
* [Reason and Result Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-result/01.md) a logical relationship in which one event is the reason for the other event, the result.
* [Contrast Relationship](../grammar-connect-logic-contrast/01.md) one item is being described as different or in opposition to another.

### Examples from the Bible



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#### Idioms

**Description** An idiom is a group of words that has a meaning that is different from what one would understand from the meanings of the individual words. Determine the meaning of idioms, proverbs, and figures of speech and translate them with expressions in your language that have the same meaning. Usually idioms cannot be translated literally into another language. The meaning of the idiom has to be expressed in a way that is natural in the Other Language.
**Description** An idiom is a group of words that has a meaning that is different from what one would understand from the meanings of the individual words. Determine the meaning of idioms, proverbs, and figures of speech and translate them with expressions in your language that have the same meaning. Usually idioms cannot be translated literally into another language. The meaning of the idiom has to be expressed in a way that is natural in the Other Language.

For example, these three translations all have the same meaning. See Acts 18:6:

@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ These are all accusations of guilt. Some are using idioms with the word “blood

#### Figures of Speech

**Description** A figure of speech is a special way of saying something in order to catch attention or express an emotion about what is said. The meaning of a figure of speech as a whole is different from the normal meaning of the individual words.
**Description** A figure of speech is a special way of saying something in order to catch attention or express an emotion about what is said. The meaning of a figure of speech as a whole is different from the normal meaning of the individual words.

Here are some examples:

@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ It is the real meaning of the whole figure of speech that should be translated i

#### Rhetorical Questions

**Description** Rhetorical questions are another way that the speaker captures the attention of the reader. Rhetorical questions are a type of question that does not expect an answer or ask for information. They usually express some kind of emotion and can be intended as a rebuke, a warning, and expression of surprise, or something else.
**Description** Rhetorical questions are another way that the speaker captures the attention of the reader. Rhetorical questions are a type of question that does not expect an answer or ask for information. They usually express some kind of emotion and can be intended as a rebuke, a warning, and expression of surprise, or something else.

For example, see Matthew 3:7: “You offspring of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the wrath that is coming?” (ULT)

@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ You may need to restate this rhetorical question as a statement when you transla

#### Exclamations

**Description** Languages use exclamations to communicate emotion. Sometimes the exclamation word or words do not have meaning other than the expression of emotion, such as the words “alas” or “wow” in English.
**Description** Languages use exclamations to communicate emotion. Sometimes the exclamation word or words do not have meaning other than the expression of emotion, such as the words “alas” or “wow” in English.

For example, see 1 Samuel 4:8a: **Woe to us**! Who will protect us from the strength of these mighty gods? (ULT)

@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ The Hebrew word translated as “woe” here expresses strong emotion about some

#### Poetry

**Description** One of the purposes of poetry is to express emotion about something. Poetry expresses emotion through a variety of ways that can differ from one language to another. These ways can include everything discussed so far, such as figures of speech and exclamations. Poetry might also use grammar differently than ordinary speech, or use wordplays or words with similar sounds or certain rhythms to convey emotion.
**Description** One of the purposes of poetry is to express emotion about something. Poetry expresses emotion through a variety of ways that can differ from one language to another. These ways can include everything discussed so far, such as figures of speech and exclamations. Poetry might also use grammar differently than ordinary speech, or use wordplays or words with similar sounds or certain rhythms to convey emotion.

For example, see Psalm 36:5: **5** Your covenant faithfulness, Yahweh, reaches to the heavens; your loyalty reaches to the clouds. (ULT)



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(See the video “Translating the Scriptures Culture” at https://ufw.io/trans_culture.)
(See the video “Translating the Scriptures Culture” at https://ufw.io/trans_culture.)

A historical translation communicates historical events and facts accurately. It provides additional information as needed to accurately communicate the intended message to people who do not share the context and culture of the original recipients of the original content.



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There are four main qualities of a good translation. It must be:

* clear see [Create Clear Translations](../guidelines-clear/01.md)
* natural see [Create Natural Translations](../guidelines-natural/01.md)
* accurate see [Create Accurate Translations](../guidelines-accurate/01.md)
* church-approved see [Create Church-Approved Translations](../guidelines-church-approved/01.md)
* clear see [Create Clear Translations](../guidelines-clear/01.md)
* natural see [Create Natural Translations](../guidelines-natural/01.md)
* accurate see [Create Accurate Translations](../guidelines-accurate/01.md)
* church-approved see [Create Church-Approved Translations](../guidelines-church-approved/01.md)

We can think of each of these qualities as a leg of a four-legged stool. Each one is necessary. If one is missing, the stool will not stand. Likewise, each of these qualities must be present in a translation in order for it to be faithful to God’s Word and useful to the church.

@@ -29,9 +29,9 @@ If a translation is clear, natural and accurate, but the church does not approve

In addition to being clear, natural, accurate, and church-approved, great translations should also be:

* faithful see [Create Faithful Translations](../guidelines-faithful/01.md)
* authoritative see [Create Authoritative Translations](../guidelines-authoritative/01.md)
* historical see [Create Historical Translations](../guidelines-historical/01.md)
* equal see [Create Equal Translations](../guidelines-equal/01.md)
* collaborative see [Create Collaborative Translations](../guidelines-collaborative/01.md)
* ongoing see [Create Ongoing Translations](../guidelines-ongoing/01.md)
* faithful see [Create Faithful Translations](../guidelines-faithful/01.md)
* authoritative see [Create Authoritative Translations](../guidelines-authoritative/01.md)
* historical see [Create Historical Translations](../guidelines-historical/01.md)
* equal see [Create Equal Translations](../guidelines-equal/01.md)
* collaborative see [Create Collaborative Translations](../guidelines-collaborative/01.md)
* ongoing see [Create Ongoing Translations](../guidelines-ongoing/01.md)

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>
>

* **no decree … can be changed** An additional sentence may be added here to aid in understanding. Alternate translation: “no decree … can be changed. So they must throw Daniel into the pit of lions.” (See: *Explicit*)
* **no decree … can be changed** An additional sentence may be added here to aid in understanding. Alternate translation: “no decree … can be changed. So they must throw Daniel into the pit of lions.” (See: *Explicit*)

The additional sentence shows what the speaker wanted the king to understand from his reminder that the king’s decrees and statues cannot be changed. In the translation, you (the translator) may need to state clearly some things that the original speaker or writer left unstated or implicit.

@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ The additional sentence shows what the speaker wanted the king to understand fro

> To the one who blasphemes against the Holy Spirit, **it will not be forgiven**. (Luke 12:10b ULT)

* **it will not be forgiven** This can be expressed with an active verb. Alternate translation: God will not forgive him. This can also be expressed in a positive way using a verb that means the opposite of “forgive.” Alternate translation: “God will consider him guilty forever” (See: *Active Passive*)
* **it will not be forgiven** This can be expressed with an active verb. Alternate translation: God will not forgive him. This can also be expressed in a positive way using a verb that means the opposite of “forgive.” Alternate translation: “God will consider him guilty forever” (See: *Active Passive*)

This Note provides an example of how translators can translate this passive sentence if their languages do not use passive sentences.

@@ -30,6 +30,6 @@ This Note provides an example of how translators can translate this passive sent

> Saul, Saul, **why are you persecuting me?** (Acts 9:4b ULT)

* **why are you persecuting me?** This rhetorical question communicates a rebuke to Saul. In some languages, a statement would be more natural (Alternate Translation): “You are persecuting me!” or a command might be more natural (Alternate translation): “Stop persecuting me!” (See: *Rhetorical Questions*)
* **why are you persecuting me?** This rhetorical question communicates a rebuke to Saul. In some languages, a statement would be more natural (Alternate Translation): “You are persecuting me!” or a command might be more natural (Alternate translation): “Stop persecuting me!” (See: *Rhetorical Questions*)

The translation suggestion here provides an alternate way to translate the rhetorical question if your language does not use that form of rhetorical question to rebuke someone.

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> But take a small number of hairs from them and tie them into **the folds of your robe**. (Ezekiel 5:3 ULT)

* **the folds of your robe** Possible meanings are: (1) “the cloth on your arms” (“your sleeves”) (UST) or (2) “the end of the cloth on your robe” (“your hem”) or (3) the fold in the garment where it is tucked into the belt.
* **the folds of your robe** Possible meanings are: (1) “the cloth on your arms” (“your sleeves”) (UST) or (2) “the end of the cloth on your robe” (“your hem”) or (3) the fold in the garment where it is tucked into the belt.

This note has the ULT text followed by three possible meanings. The word translated as “the folds of your robe” refers to the loose parts of the robe. Most scholars believe it refers here to the sleeves, but it could also refer to the loose part at the bottom or also to the folds in the middle, around the belt.

> But when Simon Peter saw it, he **fell down at the knees of Jesus.** (Luke 5:8a ULT)

* **fell down at Jesus’ knees** Possible meanings are (1) “knelt down before Jesus” or (2) “bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or (3) “lay down on the ground at Jesus’ feet.” Peter did not fall accidentally. He did this as a sign of humility and respect for Jesus.
* **fell down at Jesus’ knees** Possible meanings are (1) “knelt down before Jesus” or (2) “bowed down at Jesus’ feet” or (3) “lay down on the ground at Jesus’ feet.” Peter did not fall accidentally. He did this as a sign of humility and respect for Jesus.

This note explains what “fell down at Jesus’ knees” might mean. The first meaning is most likely correct, but the other meanings are also possible. If your language does not have a general expression that could include various actions like these, you may need to choose one of these possibilities that describe more specifically what Simon Peter did. It is also helpful to think about why Simon Peter did this, and what kind of action would communicate the same attitude of humility and respect in your culture.

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The Note for this verse says:

* **sits in the heavens** Here, **sitting** represents ruling. What he sits on can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “rules in the heavens” or “sits on his throne in heaven” (UST) (See [Metonymy](../figs-metonymy/01.md))
* **sits in the heavens** Here, **sitting** represents ruling. What he sits on can be stated clearly. Alternate translation: “rules in the heavens” or “sits on his throne in heaven” (UST) (See [Metonymy](../figs-metonymy/01.md))

Here there are two suggested translations for the phrase “sits in the heavens.” The first expresses clearly what “sits in the heavens” represents. The second gives a hint about the idea of ruling by stated clearly that he sits on his “throne.” This suggestion is from the UST.

@@ -20,6 +20,6 @@ Here there are two suggested translations for the phrase “sits in the heavens.

The Note for this verse says:

* **he fell on his face** “he knelt and touched the ground with his face” or “he bowed down to the ground” (UST)
* **he fell on his face** “he knelt and touched the ground with his face” or “he bowed down to the ground” (UST)

Here the words from the UST are provided as another translation suggestion.

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> <sup> 1</sup> It came about that when Jesus had finished instructing his twelve disciples, he departed from there to teach and preach in their cities. <sup> 2</sup> Now when John heard in the prison about the deeds of the Christ, he sent a message by his disciples <sup> 3</sup> and said to him, “Are you the Coming One, or is there another person we should be looking for?” (Matthew 11:1-3 ULT)

* **General Information**: This is the beginning of a new part of the story where the writer tells of how Jesus responded to disciples of John the Baptist. (See: _Introduction of New Event_)
* **General Information**: This is the beginning of a new part of the story where the writer tells of how Jesus responded to disciples of John the Baptist. (See: _Introduction of New Event_)

This Note alerts you to the beginning of a new part of a story and gives you a link to a page that tells more about new events and issues concerning translating them.

@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ This Note alerts you to the beginning of a new part of a story and gives you a l

> <sup> 17</sup> For he was numbered with us and received his share of this ministry. <sup> 18</sup> (Now indeed this man bought a field with the earnings from his wickedness, and he fell headfirst, and his belly burst open, and all his inward parts poured out. <sup> 19 </sup> It became known to all those living in Jerusalem, so they called that field in their own language “Akeldama,” that is, “Field of Blood.”) (Acts 1:17-19 ULT)
>
> * **Connecting Statement:** Peter continues his speech to the believers that he began in Acts 1:16.
> * **Connecting Statement:** Peter continues his speech to the believers that he began in Acts 1:16.

This Note tells you that it is still Peter speaking in verse 17 so you can mark that correctly in your language.

@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ This Note tells you that it is still Peter speaking in verse 17 so you can mark
> <sup> 21</sup> But to Israel he says, “All the day long I reached out my hands
> to a disobedient and stubborn people.” (Romans 10:20-21 ULT)

* **General Information:** Here the words “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to God.
* **General Information:** Here the words “I,” “me,” and “my” refer to God.

This Note lets you know who the pronouns refer to. You may need to add something so that readers will know that Isaiah is not speaking for himself, but is quoting what God said.

@@ -52,6 +52,6 @@ This Note lets you know who the pronouns refer to. You may need to add something

> <sup> 26</sup> Now an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, “Arise and go toward the south to the road that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza.” (This is in a desert.) <sup> 27</sup> So he arose and went. Now there was a man from Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians. He was over all her treasure. He had come to Jerusalem to worship. <sup> 28</sup> He was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. (Acts 8:26-28 ULT)

* **General Information:** This is the beginning of the part of the story about Philip and the man from Ethiopia. Verse 27 gives background information about the man from Ethiopia. (See: _Background_s)
* **General Information:** This is the beginning of the part of the story about Philip and the man from Ethiopia. Verse 27 gives background information about the man from Ethiopia. (See: _Background_s)

This Note alerts you to the beginning of a new part of a story and to some background information so you can be aware of these things and use your language’s ways of showing these things. The Note includes a link to the page about background information so you can learn more about how to translate that kind of information.

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> It is like children sitting the marketplace, who call out to one another and say, “We played a **flute** for you.” (Matthew 11:16b-17a ULT)

* **marketplace** a large, open-air area where people would come to sell their goods
* **flute** a long, hollow musical instrument which is played by blowing air in or over one end
* **marketplace** a large, open-air area where people would come to sell their goods
* **flute** a long, hollow musical instrument which is played by blowing air in or over one end

> Behold, those in expensive clothing and living in luxury are in **kings’ palaces.** (Luke 7:25b ULT)

* **kings’ palaces** the large, expensive houses that kings live in
* **kings’ palaces** the large, expensive houses that kings live in

### Translation Principles



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> The fishermen had gotten out of them and were **washing their nets**. (Luke 5:2b ULT)

* **washing their nets** They were cleaning their fishing nets in order to use them again to catch fish.
* **washing their nets** They were cleaning their fishing nets in order to use them again to catch fish.

If you did not know that fishermen used nets to catch fish, you might wonder why the fishermen were cleaning their nets. This explanation can help you choose good words for “were washing” and “nets.”

> And they **signaled** to their partners in the other boat (Luke 5:7a ULT)

* **signaled** They were too far from shore to call so they made gestures, probably waving their arms.
* **signaled** They were too far from shore to call so they made gestures, probably waving their arms.

This Note can help you understand what kind of signal the people made. It was an action that people would be able to see from a distance. This will help you choose a good word or phrase for “signaled.”

> He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, **even from his mother’s womb**. (Luke 1:15b ULT)

* **even from his mother’s womb** The word “even” here indicates that this is especially surprising news. People had been filled with the Holy Spirit before, but no one had heard of an unborn baby being filled with the Holy Spirit.
* **even from his mother’s womb** The word “even” here indicates that this is especially surprising news. People had been filled with the Holy Spirit before, but no one had heard of an unborn baby being filled with the Holy Spirit.

This Note can help you understand what the word “even” means in this sentence so that you can find a way of showing how surprising this was.

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> Many will come **in my name** and say, ‘I am he,’ and they will lead many astray. (Mark 13:6 ULT)

* **in my name** Possible meanings are (Alternate translation:) (1) “claiming my authority” or (2) “claiming that God sent them.” (See: *Metonymy* and *Idiom*)
* **in my name** Possible meanings are (Alternate translation:) (1) “claiming my authority” or (2) “claiming that God sent them.” (See: *Metonymy* and *Idiom*)

The figure of speech in this Note is called a metonymy. The phrase “in my name” does not refer to the speaker’s name (Jesus), but to his person and authority. (Thus, in this context, the word “name” is a *metonym* for the ideas of “person/authority.”) The Note explains the metonymy in this passage by giving two alternate translations. After that, there is a link to the UTA page about metonymy. Click on the link to learn about metonymy and general strategies for translating metonyms. Because this phrase is also a common idiom, the Note includes a link to the UTA page that explains idioms.

> “**You offspring of vipers**! Who warned you to flee from the wrath that is coming?” (Luke 3:7b ULT)

* **You offspring of vipers** In this metaphor, John compares the crowd to vipers, which were deadly or dangerous snakes that represent evil. Alternate translation: “you evil poisonous snakes” or “people should stay away from you just like they avoid poisonous snakes” (See: *Metaphor*)
* **You offspring of vipers** In this metaphor, John compares the crowd to vipers, which were deadly or dangerous snakes that represent evil. Alternate translation: “you evil poisonous snakes” or “people should stay away from you just like they avoid poisonous snakes” (See: *Metaphor*)

The figure of speech in this Note is called a metaphor. The Note explains the metaphor and gives two alternate translations. After that, there is a link to the UTA page about metaphors.

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> He commanded him **to tell no one**. (Luke 5:14a ULT)

* **to tell no one** This can be translated as a direct quote: “Do not tell anyone” There is implied information that can also be stated explicitly (Alternate translation): “do not tell anyone that you have been healed” (See: *Direct and Indirect Quotations* and *Ellipsis*)
* **to tell no one** This can be translated as a direct quote: “Do not tell anyone” There is implied information that can also be stated explicitly (Alternate translation): “do not tell anyone that you have been healed” (See: *Direct and Indirect Quotations* and *Ellipsis*)

Here the translationNote shows how to change the indirect quote to a direct quote, in case that would be clearer or more natural in the target language.

> At the time of the harvest **I will say to the reapers, “First pull out the weeds and tie them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn**.” (Matthew 13:30 ULT)

* **I will say to the reapers, “First pull out the weeds and tie them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn”** You can translate this as an indirect quote: “I will tell the reapers to first gather up the weeds and tie them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn.” (See: *Direct and Indirect Quotations*)
* **I will say to the reapers, “First pull out the weeds and tie them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn”** You can translate this as an indirect quote: “I will tell the reapers to first gather up the weeds and tie them in bundles to burn them, but gather the wheat into my barn.” (See: *Direct and Indirect Quotations*)

Here the translationNote shows how to change the direct quote to an indirect quote, in case that would be clearer or more natural in the target language. Do not use quotation marks around Indirect quotes. They were used here only to make it clear what you could say as an indirect quote.

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#### Examples

* **evening and morning** This refers to the whole day. Two parts of the day are used to refer to the whole day. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. (See: [*Merism*](../figs-merism/01.md))
* **walking** “obeying” (See: [*Metaphor*](../figs-metaphor/01.md))
* **made it known** “communicated it” (See: [*Idiom*](../figs-idiom/01.md))
* **evening and morning** This refers to the whole day. Two parts of the day are used to refer to the whole day. In the Jewish culture, a day begins when the sun sets. (See: [*Merism*](../figs-merism/01.md))
* **walking** “obeying” (See: [*Metaphor*](../figs-metaphor/01.md))
* **made it known** “communicated it” (See: [*Idiom*](../figs-idiom/01.md))

### Repeated Phrases in a Book

@@ -30,6 +30,6 @@ These links will only take you back to Notes in the same book that you are worki

#### Examples

* **be fruitful and multiply** See how you translated these commands in [Genesis 1:28](https://).
* **everything that creeps along the ground** This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in [Genesis 1:25](https://).
* **will be blessed in him** Alternate Translation: “will be blessed because of Abraham” or “will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham.” For translating “in him,” see how you translated “through you” in [Genesis 12:3](https://).
* **be fruitful and multiply** See how you translated these commands in [Genesis 1:28](https://).
* **everything that creeps along the ground** This includes all types of small animals. See how you translated this in [Genesis 1:25](https://).
* **will be blessed in him** Alternate Translation: “will be blessed because of Abraham” or “will be blessed because I have blessed Abraham.” For translating “in him,” see how you translated “through you” in [Genesis 12:3](https://).

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>
>

* **But it is to the extent of your hardness and unrepentant heart** Paul uses a metaphor to compare a person who refuses to obey God to something hard, like a stone. He also uses the metonym “heart” to represent the whole person. Alternate translation: “it is because you refuse to listen and repent” (See: *Metaphor* and *Metonymy*)
* **hardness and unrepentant heart** The phrase “unrepentant heart” explains the word “hardness” (See: *Doublet*)
* **But it is to the extent of your hardness and unrepentant heart** Paul uses a metaphor to compare a person who refuses to obey God to something hard, like a stone. He also uses the metonym “heart” to represent the whole person. Alternate translation: “it is because you refuse to listen and repent” (See: *Metaphor* and *Metonymy*)
* **hardness and unrepentant heart** The phrase “unrepentant heart” explains the word “hardness” (See: *Doublet*)

In this example the first note explains the metaphor and the metonym in the longer phrase as a whole, and the second note explains the doublet within the longer phrase.

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> But when Simon Peter saw it, he **fell down at the knees of Jesus**, saying, “Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, Lord.” (Luke 5:8 ULT)

* **fell down at the knees of Jesus** Possible meanings are: (1) “knelt down before Jesus” or (2) “bowed down at Jesus feet” or (3) “lay down on the ground at Jesus feet.” Peter did not fall accidentally. He did this as a sign of humility and respect for Jesus.
* **fell down at the knees of Jesus** Possible meanings are: (1) “knelt down before Jesus” or (2) “bowed down at Jesus feet” or (3) “lay down on the ground at Jesus feet.” Peter did not fall accidentally. He did this as a sign of humility and respect for Jesus.

### Translation Strategies



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@@ -6,12 +6,12 @@ Some Notes provide a translation suggestion (“Alternate translation”) that c

> Make ready **the way** of the Lord, (Luke 3:4b ULT)

* **the way** “the path” or “the road”
* **the way** “the path” or “the road”

In this example, the words “the path” or the words “the road” can replace the words “the way” found in the ULT. You can decide whether it is natural to say “way,” “path,” or “road” in your language.

> **Likewise, deacons** must be dignified, not double-talkers. (1 Timothy 3:8a ULT)

* **Deacons, likewise** “In the same way, deacons” or “Deacons, like overseers”
* **Deacons, likewise** “In the same way, deacons” or “Deacons, like overseers”

In this example, the words “In the same way, deacons” or “Deacons, like overseers” can replace the words “Likewise, deacons” in the ULT. You, as the translator, can decide what is natural for your language.

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@@ -1,39 +1,39 @@
### Translation Notes

Translation Notes are short explanations of words or phrases from the ULT. These notes are designed to help a translator to know what the text means, and to give ideas for how to express that meaning in the target language. In our software tools, the current verse of the ULT is visible to the translator and the part of the verse that the Note addresses is highlighted in yellow. Since we cannot reproduce highlighting in this resource, we will represent the highlighting with *italics*. Any part of the verse that is quoted in the note is in bold. Below is a verse of the ULT, followed by a typical note.
Translation Notes are short explanations of words or phrases from the ULT. These notes are designed to help a translator to know what the text means, and to give ideas for how to express that meaning in the target language. In our software tools, the current verse of the ULT is visible to the translator and the part of the verse that the Note addresses is highlighted in yellow. Since we cannot reproduce highlighting in this resource, we will represent the highlighting with *italics*. Any part of the verse that is quoted in the note is in bold. Below is a verse of the ULT, followed by a typical note.

> For I am already being poured out, and *the time of my departure is here*. (2 Timothy 4:6 ULT)

Paul is referring to his death as a **departure**. This is a delicate way of referring to something unpleasant. Alternate translation: “soon I will die and leave this world” (See: [[rc://en/ta/man/translate/figs-euphemism]])

Most notes are written in sentence style. After a short explanation, most notes also offer one or more alternate translations. These are suggestions for how the translator might express the same meaning as that of the highlighted word or phrase in the ULT, in case the expression in the ULT is not clear. After the alternate translation, most notes include a link to an article in Translation Academy that explains the translation issue in more detail.
Most notes are written in sentence style. After a short explanation, most notes also offer one or more alternate translations. These are suggestions for how the translator might express the same meaning as that of the highlighted word or phrase in the ULT, in case the expression in the ULT is not clear. After the alternate translation, most notes include a link to an article in Translation Academy that explains the translation issue in more detail.

#### Types of Notes

There are many different types of notes in the Translation Notes. Each type of Note gives the explanation in a different way. Knowing the type of note will help you (the translator) make decisions on the best way to translate the Bible text into your language.

* **[Notes with Definitions](../resources-def/01.md)** Sometimes you may not know what a word in the ULT means. Simple definitions of words or phrases are added without quotes or sentence format.
* **[Notes with Definitions](../resources-def/01.md)** Sometimes you may not know what a word in the ULT means. Simple definitions of words or phrases are added without quotes or sentence format.

* **[Notes that Explain](../resources-eplain/01.md)** Simple explanations about words or phrases are in sentence format.
* **[Notes that Explain](../resources-eplain/01.md)** Simple explanations about words or phrases are in sentence format.

* **Notes that suggest other ways to translate** Because there are many different kinds of these Notes, they are explained in more detail below.
* **Notes that suggest other ways to translate** Because there are many different kinds of these Notes, they are explained in more detail below.

#### Suggested Translations

There are several types of suggested translations.

* **[Notes with Synonyms and Equivalent Phrases](../resources-synequi/01.md)** Sometimes the Notes provide a translation suggestion that can replace the word or phrase in the ULT. These replacements can fit into the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. These are synonyms and equivalent phrases and are written in double quotes. These mean the same as the text in the ULT.
* **[Notes with Synonyms and Equivalent Phrases](../resources-synequi/01.md)** Sometimes the Notes provide a translation suggestion that can replace the word or phrase in the ULT. These replacements can fit into the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. These are synonyms and equivalent phrases and are written in double quotes. These mean the same as the text in the ULT.

* **[Notes with Alternate Translations](../resources-alter/01.md)** An Alternate translation is a suggested change to the form or content of the ULT because the target language may prefer a different form. The Alternate translation should only be used when the ULT form or content is not accurate or natural in your language.
* **[Notes with Alternate Translations](../resources-alter/01.md)** An Alternate translation is a suggested change to the form or content of the ULT because the target language may prefer a different form. The Alternate translation should only be used when the ULT form or content is not accurate or natural in your language.

* **[Notes that Clarify the UST Translation](../resources-clarify/01.md)** When the UST provides a good Alternate translation for the ULT, then there may be no Note providing an Alternate translation. However, on occasion, a Note will provide Alternate translations in addition to the text from the UST, and sometimes it will quote the text from the UST as an Alternate translation. In that case, the Note will say “(UST)” after the text from the UST.
* **[Notes that Clarify the UST Translation](../resources-clarify/01.md)** When the UST provides a good Alternate translation for the ULT, then there may be no Note providing an Alternate translation. However, on occasion, a Note will provide Alternate translations in addition to the text from the UST, and sometimes it will quote the text from the UST as an Alternate translation. In that case, the Note will say “(UST)” after the text from the UST.

* **[Notes that have Alternate Meanings](../resources-alterm/01.md)** Some Notes provide Alternate Meanings when a word or phrase can be understood in more than one way. When this happens, the Note will put the most probable meaning first.
* **[Notes that have Alternate Meanings](../resources-alterm/01.md)** Some Notes provide Alternate Meanings when a word or phrase can be understood in more than one way. When this happens, the Note will put the most probable meaning first.

* **[Notes with Probable or Possible Meanings](../resources-porp/01.md)** Sometimes Bible scholars do not know for sure, or do not agree on, what a particular phrase or sentence in the Bible means. Some reasons for this include: there are minor differences in the ancient Bible texts, or a word may have more than one meaning or use, or it may not be clear what a word (such as a pronoun) refers to in a particular phrase. In this case, the Note will give the most probable meaning or will list several possible meanings with the most probable meaning first.
* **[Notes with Probable or Possible Meanings](../resources-porp/01.md)** Sometimes Bible scholars do not know for sure, or do not agree on, what a particular phrase or sentence in the Bible means. Some reasons for this include: there are minor differences in the ancient Bible texts, or a word may have more than one meaning or use, or it may not be clear what a word (such as a pronoun) refers to in a particular phrase. In this case, the Note will give the most probable meaning or will list several possible meanings with the most probable meaning first.

* **[Notes that Identify Figures of Speech](../resources-fofs/01.md)** When there is a Figure of Speech in the ULT text, then the notes will provide an explanation of how to translate that Figure of Speech. Sometimes an Alternate Translation is provided. There will also be a link to the unfoldingWord® Translation Academy page for additional information and translation strategies to help the translator accurately translate the meaning of that type of Figure of Speech.
* **[Notes that Identify Figures of Speech](../resources-fofs/01.md)** When there is a Figure of Speech in the ULT text, then the notes will provide an explanation of how to translate that Figure of Speech. Sometimes an Alternate Translation is provided. There will also be a link to the unfoldingWord® Translation Academy page for additional information and translation strategies to help the translator accurately translate the meaning of that type of Figure of Speech.

* **[Notes that Identify Indirect and Direct Quotes](../resources-iordquote/01.md)** There are two kinds of quotations: direct quotation and indirect quotation. When translating a quotation, translators need to decide whether to translate it as a direct quotation or an indirect quotation. These Notes will alert the translator to the choice that needs to be made.
* **[Notes that Identify Indirect and Direct Quotes](../resources-iordquote/01.md)** There are two kinds of quotations: direct quotation and indirect quotation. When translating a quotation, translators need to decide whether to translate it as a direct quotation or an indirect quotation. These Notes will alert the translator to the choice that needs to be made.

* **[Notes for Long ULT Phrases](../resources-long/01.md)** Sometimes there is a Note which refers to a phrase and then other Notes which refer to portions of that phrase. In that case, the Note for the longer phrase is first, and the Notes for its smaller parts follow afterward. In that way, the Notes can give translation suggestions or explanations for the whole as well as each part.
* **[Notes for Long ULT Phrases](../resources-long/01.md)** Sometimes there is a Note which refers to a phrase and then other Notes which refer to portions of that phrase. In that case, the Note for the longer phrase is first, and the Notes for its smaller parts follow afterward. In that way, the Notes can give translation suggestions or explanations for the whole as well as each part.

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@@ -191,9 +191,9 @@ sections:
- title: "Sentence Types"
link: figs-sentencetypes
sections:
- title: "Statements Other Uses"
- title: "Statements Other Uses"
link: figs-declarative
- title: "Imperatives Other Uses"
- title: "Imperatives Other Uses"
link: figs-imperative
- title: "Exclamations"
link: figs-exclamations
@@ -236,9 +236,9 @@ sections:
link: figs-ellipsis
- title: "Forms of You"
link: figs-you
- title: "Forms of 'You' Dual/Plural"
- title: "Forms of 'You' Dual/Plural"
link: figs-youdual
- title: "Forms of 'You' Singular"
- title: "Forms of 'You' Singular"
link: figs-yousingular
- title: "Generic Noun Phrases"
link: figs-genericnoun
@@ -258,11 +258,11 @@ sections:
link: figs-gendernotations
- title: "Word Order"
sections:
- title: "Word Order General"
- title: "Word Order General"
link: figs-order
- title: "Word Order Hebrew"
- title: "Word Order Hebrew"
link: figs-orderHeb
- title: "Word Order Greek"
- title: "Word Order Greek"
link: figs-orderGrk
- title: "Quotes"
sections:
@@ -282,13 +282,13 @@ sections:
link: figs-123person
- title: "Exclusive and Inclusive 'We'"
link: figs-exclusive
- title: "Forms of 'You' Formal or Informal"
- title: "Forms of 'You' Formal or Informal"
link: figs-youformal
- title: "Forms of 'You' Singular to a Crowd"
- title: "Forms of 'You' Singular to a Crowd"
link: figs-youcrowd
- title: "Reflexive Pronouns"
link: figs-rpronouns
- title: "Pronouns When to Use Them"
- title: "Pronouns When to Use Them"
link: writing-pronouns
- title: "Unknowns"
sections:
@@ -370,31 +370,31 @@ sections:
sections:
- title: "Biblical Imagery"
link: biblicalimageryta
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Patterns"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Patterns"
link: bita-part1
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Metonymies"
link: bita-part2
- title: "Biblical Imagery Simple Metaphors"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Simple Metaphors"
link: figs-simetaphor
- title: "Biblical Imagery Extended Metaphors"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Extended Metaphors"
link: figs-exmetaphor
- title: "Biblical Imagery Complex Metaphors"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Complex Metaphors"
link: figs-cometaphor
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Metaphors in the Bible"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Common Metaphors in the Bible"
sections:
- title: "Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Body Parts and Human Qualities"
link: bita-hq
- title: "Biblical Imagery Human Behavior"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Human Behavior"
link: bita-humanbehavior
- title: "Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Natural Phenomena"
link: bita-phenom
- title: "Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Man-made Objects"
link: bita-manmade
- title: "Biblical Imagery Farming"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Farming"
link: bita-farming
- title: "Biblical Imagery Animals"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Animals"
link: bita-animals
- title: "Biblical Imagery Plants"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Plants"
link: bita-plants
- title: "Biblical Imagery Cultural Models"
- title: "Biblical Imagery Cultural Models"
link: bita-part3

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Two of the major terms used in translating text are “form” and “meaning.” These terms are used in special ways in Bible translation. They have the following definitions:

* **Form** The structure of the language as it appears on the page or as it is spoken. Form refers to the way that the language is arranged, including the words, the word order, the grammar, idioms, and any other features of the structure of the text.
* **Meaning** The underlying idea or concept that the text is trying to communicate to the reader or hearer. A speaker or writer can communicate the same meaning by using different forms of the language, and different people can understand different meanings from hearing or reading the same language form. In this way you can see that form and meaning are not the same thing.
* **Form** The structure of the language as it appears on the page or as it is spoken. Form refers to the way that the language is arranged, including the words, the word order, the grammar, idioms, and any other features of the structure of the text.
* **Meaning** The underlying idea or concept that the text is trying to communicate to the reader or hearer. A speaker or writer can communicate the same meaning by using different forms of the language, and different people can understand different meanings from hearing or reading the same language form. In this way you can see that form and meaning are not the same thing.

### An Example



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@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ A reader of the second version will know that this Psalm is a poem or a song bec

Look also at the form of 2 Samuel 18:33b in the New International Version.

> “O my son Absalom! My son, my son Absalom! If only I had died instead of youO Absalom, my son, my son!”
> “O my son Absalom! My son, my son Absalom! If only I had died instead of youO Absalom, my son, my son!”

Someone might say that the meaning contained in this part of the verse is, “I wish that I had died instead of my son Absalom.” This does summarize the meaning contained in the words. But the form communicates much more than just that content. The repetition of “my son” so many times, the repetition of the name “Absalom,” the expression “O,” the wish form “If only …” all communicate a strong emotion of deep anguish on the part of a father who has lost a son. As a translator, you need to translate not just the meaning of the words, but also the meaning of the form. For 2 Samuel 18:33b, it is important that you use a form that communicates the same emotion as contained in the original language.



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@@ -13,29 +13,29 @@ The Hebrew calendar used in the Bible has twelve months. Unlike the western cale

This is a list of the Hebrew months with information about them that may be helpful in the translation.

**Aviv** (This month was called **Nisan** after the Babylonian exile.) This is the first month of the Hebrew calendar. It marks when God brought the people of Israel out of Egypt. It is at the beginning of the spring season when the late rains come and people begin to harvest their crops. It is during the last part of March and the first part of April on western calendars. The Passover celebration started on Aviv 10; the Festival of Unleavened Bread was right after that, and the Festival of Harvest was a few weeks after that.
**Aviv** (This month was called **Nisan** after the Babylonian exile.) This is the first month of the Hebrew calendar. It marks when God brought the people of Israel out of Egypt. It is at the beginning of the spring season when the late rains come and people begin to harvest their crops. It is during the last part of March and the first part of April on western calendars. The Passover celebration started on Aviv 10; the Festival of Unleavened Bread was right after that, and the Festival of Harvest was a few weeks after that.

**Ziv** This is the second month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the harvest season. It is during the last part of April and the first part of May on Western calendars.
**Ziv** This is the second month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the harvest season. It is during the last part of April and the first part of May on Western calendars.

**Sivan** This is the third month of the Hebrew calendar. It is at the end of the harvest season and the beginning of the dry season. It is during the last part of May and the first part of June on Western calendars. The Feast of Weeks is celebrated on Sivan 6.
**Sivan** This is the third month of the Hebrew calendar. It is at the end of the harvest season and the beginning of the dry season. It is during the last part of May and the first part of June on Western calendars. The Feast of Weeks is celebrated on Sivan 6.

**Tammuz** This is the fourth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the dry season. It is during the last part of June and the first part of July on Western calendars.
**Tammuz** This is the fourth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the dry season. It is during the last part of June and the first part of July on Western calendars.

**Ab** This is the fifth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the dry season. It is during the last part of July and the first part of August on Western calendars.
**Ab** This is the fifth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the dry season. It is during the last part of July and the first part of August on Western calendars.

**Elul** This is the sixth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. It is during the last part of August and the first part of September on Western calendars.
**Elul** This is the sixth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. It is during the last part of August and the first part of September on Western calendars.

**Ethanim** This is the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the early rain season which would soften the land for sowing. It is during the last part of September and the first part of October on Western calendars. The Feast of Ingathering and the Day of Atonement are celebrated in this month.
**Ethanim** This is the seventh month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the early rain season which would soften the land for sowing. It is during the last part of September and the first part of October on Western calendars. The Feast of Ingathering and the Day of Atonement are celebrated in this month.

**Bul** This is the eighth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the rainy season when people plough their fields and sow seed. It is during the last part of October and the first part of November on Western calendars.
**Bul** This is the eighth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the rainy season when people plough their fields and sow seed. It is during the last part of October and the first part of November on Western calendars.

**Kislev** This is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. This is at the end of the sowing season and the beginning of the cold season. It is during the last part of November and the first part of December on Western calendars.
**Kislev** This is the ninth month of the Hebrew calendar. This is at the end of the sowing season and the beginning of the cold season. It is during the last part of November and the first part of December on Western calendars.

**Tebeth** This is the tenth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the cold season when there may be rain and snow. It is during the last part of December and the first part of January on Western calendars.
**Tebeth** This is the tenth month of the Hebrew calendar. It is during the cold season when there may be rain and snow. It is during the last part of December and the first part of January on Western calendars.

**Shebat** This is the eleventh month of the Hebrew calendar. This is the coldest month of the year, and it has heavy rainfall. It is during the last part of January and the first part of February on Western calendars.
**Shebat** This is the eleventh month of the Hebrew calendar. This is the coldest month of the year, and it has heavy rainfall. It is during the last part of January and the first part of February on Western calendars.

**Adar** This is the twelfth and last month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the cold season. It is during the last part of February and the first part of March on western calendars. The feast called Purim is celebrated in Adar.
**Adar** This is the twelfth and last month of the Hebrew calendar. This is during the cold season. It is during the last part of February and the first part of March on western calendars. The feast called Purim is celebrated in Adar.

### Examples From the Bible



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Some highlights in the Translation Manual:

* [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../guidelines-intro/01.md) defining a good translation
* [The Translation Process](../translate-process/01.md) how to achieve a good translation
* [Choosing a Translation Team](../choose-team/01.md) some items to consider before starting a translation project
* [Choosing What to Translate](../translation-difficulty/01.md) what to start translating
* [The Qualities of a Good Translation](../guidelines-intro/01.md) defining a good translation
* [The Translation Process](../translate-process/01.md) how to achieve a good translation
* [Choosing a Translation Team](../choose-team/01.md) some items to consider before starting a translation project
* [Choosing What to Translate](../translation-difficulty/01.md) what to start translating

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### The Text In the Original Language Is the Most Accurate

**Description** The original language is the language in which a Bible text was first written. The original language of the New Testament is Greek. The original language of most of the Old Testament is Hebrew. However, Aramaic is the original language of some parts of the books of Daniel and Ezra. The original language is always the most accurate language from which to translate a passage.
**Description** The original language is the language in which a Bible text was first written. The original language of the New Testament is Greek. The original language of most of the Old Testament is Hebrew. However, Aramaic is the original language of some parts of the books of Daniel and Ezra. The original language is always the most accurate language from which to translate a passage.

The source language is the language from which the translation is being made. If a translator is translating the Bible from the original languages, then the original language and the source language for his translation are the same. However, only people who have spent many years studying the original languages understand them and can use them as a source language. For that reason, most translators use Bibles that have been translated into a language of wider communication as their source language text.



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When choosing a source text, there are a number of factors that must be considered:

* **[Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md)** Does the text agree with the Statement of Faith?
* **[Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md)** Does the text agree with the Translation Guidelines?
* **Language** Is the text in a suitable language that translators and checkers understand well?
* **[Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../translate-source-licensing/01.md)** Is the text released under a license that gives sufficient legal freedom?
* **[Source Texts and Version Numbers](../translate-source-version/01.md)** Is the text the latest, most updated version?
* **[The Original and Source Languages](../translate-original/01.md)** Does the translation team understand the difference between source languages and original languages?
* **[Original Manuscripts](../translate-manuscripts/01.md)** Does the translation team understand about Original Manuscripts and [Textual Variants](../translate-textvariants/01.md)?
* **[Statement of Faith](../../intro/statement-of-faith/01.md)** Does the text agree with the Statement of Faith?
* **[Translation Guidelines](../../intro/translation-guidelines/01.md)** Does the text agree with the Translation Guidelines?
* **Language** Is the text in a suitable language that translators and checkers understand well?
* **[Copyrights, Licensing, and Source Texts](../translate-source-licensing/01.md)** Is the text released under a license that gives sufficient legal freedom?
* **[Source Texts and Version Numbers](../translate-source-version/01.md)** Is the text the latest, most updated version?
* **[The Original and Source Languages](../translate-original/01.md)** Does the translation team understand the difference between source languages and original languages?
* **[Original Manuscripts](../translate-manuscripts/01.md)** Does the translation team understand about Original Manuscripts and [Textual Variants](../translate-textvariants/01.md)?

It is important that the leaders of the churches in the language group agree that the source text is a good one. The Open Bible Stories are available in many source languages on https://ufw.io/stories/. There are also translations of the Bible there to be used as sources for translation in English, and soon, Other Languages, as well.

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(3) Use an action from your own culture that has the same meaning.

> And **falling at the feet of Jesus** (Luke 8:41 ULT) Since Jairus actually did this, you should not substitute an action from your own culture.
> And **falling at the feet of Jesus** (Luke 8:41 ULT) Since Jairus actually did this, you should not substitute an action from your own culture.

> Look, I am **standing at the door and am knocking**. (Revelation 3:20 ULT) Jesus was not standing at a real door. Rather he was speaking about wanting to have a relationship with people. So in cultures where it is polite to clear one’s throat when wanting to be let into a house, you could use that.
> Look, I am **standing at the door and am knocking**. (Revelation 3:20 ULT) Jesus was not standing at a real door. Rather he was speaking about wanting to have a relationship with people. So in cultures where it is polite to clear one’s throat when wanting to be let into a house, you could use that.
>
> > Look, I stand at the door and clear my throat.

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**Note:** These terms are used in this manual. The translator will need to understand these terms in order to use the Translation Manual.

**Term** A word or phrase that refers to one thing, idea, or action. For example, the term in English for pouring liquid into one’s mouth is “drink.” The term for a ceremony that marks an important transition in someone’s life is “rite of passage.” The difference between a term and a word is that a term can contain several words.
**Term** A word or phrase that refers to one thing, idea, or action. For example, the term in English for pouring liquid into one’s mouth is “drink.” The term for a ceremony that marks an important transition in someone’s life is “rite of passage.” The difference between a term and a word is that a term can contain several words.

**Text** A text is something that a speaker or writer is communicating to a hearer or reader by means of language. The speaker or writer has a certain meaning in mind, and so he or she chooses a form of the language to express that meaning.
**Text** A text is something that a speaker or writer is communicating to a hearer or reader by means of language. The speaker or writer has a certain meaning in mind, and so he or she chooses a form of the language to express that meaning.

**Context** The words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs surrounding the word, phrase, or sentence in question. The context is the text that surrounds the part of the text that you are examining. The meaning of individual words and phrases can change when they are in different contexts.
**Context** The words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs surrounding the word, phrase, or sentence in question. The context is the text that surrounds the part of the text that you are examining. The meaning of individual words and phrases can change when they are in different contexts.

**Form** The structure of the language as it appears on the page or as it is spoken. Form refers to the way that the language is arranged, including the words, the word order, the grammar, idioms, and any other features of the structure of the text.
**Form** The structure of the language as it appears on the page or as it is spoken. Form refers to the way that the language is arranged, including the words, the word order, the grammar, idioms, and any other features of the structure of the text.

**Grammar** The way that sentences are put together in a language. This has to do with the order of the various parts, such as whether the verb goes first or last or in the middle.
**Grammar** The way that sentences are put together in a language. This has to do with the order of the various parts, such as whether the verb goes first or last or in the middle.

**Noun** A kind of word that refers to a person, place, or thing. A proper noun is the name of a person or place. An abstract noun is a thing that we cannot see or touch, like “peace” or “unity.” It refers to an idea or a state of being. Some languages do not use abstract nouns.
**Noun** A kind of word that refers to a person, place, or thing. A proper noun is the name of a person or place. An abstract noun is a thing that we cannot see or touch, like “peace” or “unity.” It refers to an idea or a state of being. Some languages do not use abstract nouns.

**Verb** A kind of word that refers to an action, such as “walk” or “arrive.”
**Verb** A kind of word that refers to an action, such as “walk” or “arrive.”

**Modifier** A kind of word that says something about another word. Adjectives and adverbs are modifiers.
**Modifier** A kind of word that says something about another word. Adjectives and adverbs are modifiers.

**Adjective** A kind of word that says something about a noun. For example, the word “tall” says something about the noun “man” in the sentence “I see a tall man.”
**Adjective** A kind of word that says something about a noun. For example, the word “tall” says something about the noun “man” in the sentence “I see a tall man.”

**Adverb** A kind of word that says something about a verb. For example, the word “loudly” says something about the verb “spoke” in the sentence “The man spoke loudly to the crowd of people.”
**Adverb** A kind of word that says something about a verb. For example, the word “loudly” says something about the verb “spoke” in the sentence “The man spoke loudly to the crowd of people.”

**Idiom** An expression that uses several words and that means something different as a whole than it would if the words were understood with the meanings that they have when they are used separately. Idioms cannot be translated literally, that is, based on the meanings of the separate words. For example, “he kicked the bucket” is an idiom in English that means “he died.”
**Idiom** An expression that uses several words and that means something different as a whole than it would if the words were understood with the meanings that they have when they are used separately. Idioms cannot be translated literally, that is, based on the meanings of the separate words. For example, “he kicked the bucket” is an idiom in English that means “he died.”

**Meaning** The underlying idea or concept that the text is trying to communicate to the reader or hearer. A speaker or writer can communicate the same meaning by using different forms of the language, and different people can understand different meanings from hearing or reading the same language form. In this way, you can see that form and meaning are not the same thing.
**Meaning** The underlying idea or concept that the text is trying to communicate to the reader or hearer. A speaker or writer can communicate the same meaning by using different forms of the language, and different people can understand different meanings from hearing or reading the same language form. In this way, you can see that form and meaning are not the same thing.

**Translation** The process of expressing in the form of a target language the same meaning that a writer or speaker expressed in the form of a source language.
**Translation** The process of expressing in the form of a target language the same meaning that a writer or speaker expressed in the form of a source language.

**Source Language** The language from which the translation is being made.
**Source Language** The language from which the translation is being made.

**Source Text**\- The text from which the translation is being made.

**Target Language** The language into which a translation is being made.
**Target Language** The language into which a translation is being made.

**Target Text**- The text being made by the translator as he or she translates the meaning from the source text.

**Original Language** The language in which a Bible text was initially written. The original language of the New Testament is Greek. The original language of most of the Old Testament is Hebrew. However, the original language of some parts of Daniel and Ezra is Aramaic. The original language is always the most accurate language from which to translate a passage.
**Original Language** The language in which a Bible text was initially written. The original language of the New Testament is Greek. The original language of most of the Old Testament is Hebrew. However, the original language of some parts of Daniel and Ezra is Aramaic. The original language is always the most accurate language from which to translate a passage.

**Language of Wider Communication** A language that is spoken over a broad area and by many people. For most people, this is not their first language, but is the language that they use to speak to people outside of their language community. Some people call this a trade language. Most Bibles will be translated using a language of wider communication as the source language.
**Language of Wider Communication** A language that is spoken over a broad area and by many people. For most people, this is not their first language, but is the language that they use to speak to people outside of their language community. Some people call this a trade language. Most Bibles will be translated using a language of wider communication as the source language.